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PUFAs, Bone Mineral Density, and Fragility Fracture: Findings from Human Studies.

Abstract

Osteoporosis is a global health problem that leads to an increased incidence of fragility fracture. Recent dietary patterns of Western populations include higher than recommended intakes of n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) relative to n-3 (ω-3) PUFAs that may result in a chronic state of sterile whole body inflammation. Findings from human bone cell culture experiments have revealed both benefits and detriments to bone-related outcomes depending on the quantity and source of PUFAs. Findings from observational and randomized controlled trials suggest that higher fatty fish intake is strongly linked with reduced risk of fragility fracture. Moreover, human studies largely support a greater intake of total PUFAs, total n-6 (ω-6) fatty acid, and total n-3 (ω-3) fatty acid for higher bone mineral density and reduced risk of fragility fracture. Less consistent evidence has been observed when investigating the role of long chain n-3 (ω-3) PUFAs or the ratio of n-6 (ω-6) PUFAs to n-3 (ω-3) PUFAs. Aspects to consider when interpreting the current literature involve participant characteristics, study duration, diet assessment tools, and the primary outcome measure.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Center for Bone and Muscle Health, and Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, Canada.

    Center for Bone and Muscle Health, and Department of Kinesiology, Faculty of Applied Health Sciences, Brock University, St. Catharines, Canada wward@brocku.ca.

    Source

    MeSH

    Animals
    Bone Density
    Evidence-Based Medicine
    Fatty Acids, Omega-3
    Fatty Acids, Omega-6
    Female
    Fishes
    Global Health
    Humans
    Male
    Observational Studies as Topic
    Osteoporosis
    Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal
    Osteoporotic Fractures
    Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
    Recommended Dietary Allowances
    Seafood

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    26980813

    Citation

    Longo, Amanda B., and Wendy E. Ward. "PUFAs, Bone Mineral Density, and Fragility Fracture: Findings From Human Studies." Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), vol. 7, no. 2, 2016, pp. 299-312.
    Longo AB, Ward WE. PUFAs, Bone Mineral Density, and Fragility Fracture: Findings from Human Studies. Adv Nutr. 2016;7(2):299-312.
    Longo, A. B., & Ward, W. E. (2016). PUFAs, Bone Mineral Density, and Fragility Fracture: Findings from Human Studies. Advances in Nutrition (Bethesda, Md.), 7(2), pp. 299-312. doi:10.3945/an.115.009472.
    Longo AB, Ward WE. PUFAs, Bone Mineral Density, and Fragility Fracture: Findings From Human Studies. Adv Nutr. 2016;7(2):299-312. PubMed PMID: 26980813.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - PUFAs, Bone Mineral Density, and Fragility Fracture: Findings from Human Studies. AU - Longo,Amanda B, AU - Ward,Wendy E, Y1 - 2016/03/15/ PY - 2017/03/01/pmc-release PY - 2016/3/17/entrez PY - 2016/3/17/pubmed PY - 2016/12/15/medline KW - arachidonic acid KW - bone health KW - bone mineral density KW - docosahexaenoic acid KW - eicosapentaenoic acid KW - fatty acids KW - fracture KW - osteoporosis KW - women's health KW - α-linolenic acid SP - 299 EP - 312 JF - Advances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.) JO - Adv Nutr VL - 7 IS - 2 N2 - Osteoporosis is a global health problem that leads to an increased incidence of fragility fracture. Recent dietary patterns of Western populations include higher than recommended intakes of n-6 (ω-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) relative to n-3 (ω-3) PUFAs that may result in a chronic state of sterile whole body inflammation. Findings from human bone cell culture experiments have revealed both benefits and detriments to bone-related outcomes depending on the quantity and source of PUFAs. Findings from observational and randomized controlled trials suggest that higher fatty fish intake is strongly linked with reduced risk of fragility fracture. Moreover, human studies largely support a greater intake of total PUFAs, total n-6 (ω-6) fatty acid, and total n-3 (ω-3) fatty acid for higher bone mineral density and reduced risk of fragility fracture. Less consistent evidence has been observed when investigating the role of long chain n-3 (ω-3) PUFAs or the ratio of n-6 (ω-6) PUFAs to n-3 (ω-3) PUFAs. Aspects to consider when interpreting the current literature involve participant characteristics, study duration, diet assessment tools, and the primary outcome measure. SN - 2156-5376 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/26980813/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/advances/article-lookup/doi/10.3945/an.115.009472 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -