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Diet Quality and Cancer Outcomes in Adults: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies.
Int J Mol Sci 2016; 17(7)IJ

Abstract

Dietary patterns influence cancer risk. However, systematic reviews have not evaluated relationships between a priori defined diet quality scores and adult cancer risk and mortality. The aims of this systematic review are to (1) describe diet quality scores used in cohort or cross-sectional research examining cancer outcomes; and (2) describe associations between diet quality scores and cancer risk and mortality. The protocol was registered in Prospero, and a systematic search using six electronic databases was conducted through to December 2014. Records were assessed for inclusion by two independent reviewers, and quality was evaluated using a validated tool. Sixty-four studies met inclusion criteria from which 55 different diet quality scores were identified. Of the 35 studies investigating diet quality and cancer risk, 60% (n = 21) found a positive relationship. Results suggest no relationship between diet quality scores and overall cancer risk. Inverse associations were found for diet quality scores and risk of postmenopausal breast, colorectal, head, and neck cancer. No consistent relationships between diet quality scores and cancer mortality were found. Diet quality appears to be related to site-specific adult cancer risk. The relationship with cancer mortality is less conclusive, suggesting additional factors impact overall cancer survival. Development of a cancer-specific diet quality score for application in prospective epidemiology and in public health is warranted.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia.Department of Rural Health, University of Newcastle, Tamworth 2308, Australia. Leanne.Brown@newcastle.edu.au. Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia. Leanne.Brown@newcastle.edu.au.School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia. Rebecca.Williams@newcastle.edu.au. Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia. Rebecca.Williams@newcastle.edu.au.Priority Research Centre for Gender, Health and Ageing, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia. Julie.Byles@newcastle.edu.au. School of Medicine and Public Health, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia. Julie.Byles@newcastle.edu.au.School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medicine, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia. Clare.Collins@newcastle.edu.au. Priority Research Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition, University of Newcastle, Callaghan 2308, Australia. Clare.Collins@newcastle.edu.au.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review
Systematic Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

27399671

Citation

Potter, Jennifer, et al. "Diet Quality and Cancer Outcomes in Adults: a Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies." International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 17, no. 7, 2016.
Potter J, Brown L, Williams RL, et al. Diet Quality and Cancer Outcomes in Adults: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17(7).
Potter, J., Brown, L., Williams, R. L., Byles, J., & Collins, C. E. (2016). Diet Quality and Cancer Outcomes in Adults: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 17(7), doi:10.3390/ijms17071052.
Potter J, et al. Diet Quality and Cancer Outcomes in Adults: a Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Jul 5;17(7) PubMed PMID: 27399671.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Diet Quality and Cancer Outcomes in Adults: A Systematic Review of Epidemiological Studies. AU - Potter,Jennifer, AU - Brown,Leanne, AU - Williams,Rebecca L, AU - Byles,Julie, AU - Collins,Clare E, Y1 - 2016/07/05/ PY - 2016/04/29/received PY - 2016/06/06/revised PY - 2016/06/20/accepted PY - 2016/7/12/entrez PY - 2016/7/12/pubmed PY - 2017/4/5/medline KW - cancer KW - diet quality index KW - risk and mortality KW - systematic review JF - International journal of molecular sciences JO - Int J Mol Sci VL - 17 IS - 7 N2 - Dietary patterns influence cancer risk. However, systematic reviews have not evaluated relationships between a priori defined diet quality scores and adult cancer risk and mortality. The aims of this systematic review are to (1) describe diet quality scores used in cohort or cross-sectional research examining cancer outcomes; and (2) describe associations between diet quality scores and cancer risk and mortality. The protocol was registered in Prospero, and a systematic search using six electronic databases was conducted through to December 2014. Records were assessed for inclusion by two independent reviewers, and quality was evaluated using a validated tool. Sixty-four studies met inclusion criteria from which 55 different diet quality scores were identified. Of the 35 studies investigating diet quality and cancer risk, 60% (n = 21) found a positive relationship. Results suggest no relationship between diet quality scores and overall cancer risk. Inverse associations were found for diet quality scores and risk of postmenopausal breast, colorectal, head, and neck cancer. No consistent relationships between diet quality scores and cancer mortality were found. Diet quality appears to be related to site-specific adult cancer risk. The relationship with cancer mortality is less conclusive, suggesting additional factors impact overall cancer survival. Development of a cancer-specific diet quality score for application in prospective epidemiology and in public health is warranted. SN - 1422-0067 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/27399671/full_citation L2 - http://www.mdpi.com/resolver?pii=ijms17071052 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -