Myocardial energetics and the role of micronutrients in heart failure: a critical review.Am J Cardiovasc Dis. 2016; 6(3):81-92.AJ
Heart failure is a multifactorial disease with poor prognosis. There are many hypotheses regarding the cause of heart failure. Leading among them are the hemodynamic and the neuro-hormonal hypotheses. Although the energy depletion hypothesis has been fairly recent, there is evidence suggesting that declining bioenergy plays a major role in heart failure. This review explored the myocardial energy depletion hypothesis from the role of micronutrients in correcting and alleviating symptoms of heart failure. Even though focus was on key nutrients such as coenzyme Q10, thiamine, riboflavin, L-carnitine, and taurine, emphasis was on the combined effect of multiple micronutrients as a whole. Search from databases from 2000 to 2015 produced four clinical studies using multiple micronutrients on heart failure. Evidence from the studies show that using high doses of multiple micronutrients may have positive effects on heart failure and simultaneously support the myocardial energy depletion hypothesis.