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Sodium hypochlorite dosage for household and emergency water treatment: updated recommendations.
J Water Health. 2018 Feb; 16(1):112-125.JW

Abstract

Household water treatment with chlorine can improve the microbiological quality of household water and reduce diarrheal disease. We conducted laboratory and field studies to inform chlorine dosage recommendations. In the laboratory, reactors of varying turbidity (10-300 NTU) and total organic carbon (0-25 mg/L addition) were created, spiked with Escherichia coli, and dosed with 3.75 mg/L sodium hypochlorite. All reactors had >4 log reduction of E. coli 24 hours after chlorine addition. In the field, we tested 158 sources in 22 countries for chlorine demand. A 1.88 mg/L dosage for water from improved sources of <5 or <10 NTU turbidity met free chlorine residual criteria (≤2.0 mg/L at 1 hour, ≥0.2 mg/L at 24 hours) 91-94% and 82-87% of the time at 8 and 24 hours, respectively. In unimproved water source samples, a 3.75 mg/L dosage met relaxed criteria (≤4.0 mg/L at 1 hour, ≥0.2 mg/L after 24 hours) 83% and 65% of the time after 8 and 24 hours, respectively. We recommend water from improved/low turbidity sources be dosed at 1.88 mg/L and used within 24 hours, and from unimproved/higher turbidity sources be dosed at 3.75 mg/L and consumed within 8 hours. Further research on field effectiveness of chlorination is recommended.

Authors+Show Affiliations

School of Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA 02111, USA.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA E-mail: daniele.lantagne@tufts.edu.Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA E-mail: daniele.lantagne@tufts.edu; Waterborne Disease Prevention Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30333, USA.

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

29424725

Citation

Wilhelm, Natalie, et al. "Sodium Hypochlorite Dosage for Household and Emergency Water Treatment: Updated Recommendations." Journal of Water and Health, vol. 16, no. 1, 2018, pp. 112-125.
Wilhelm N, Kaufmann A, Blanton E, et al. Sodium hypochlorite dosage for household and emergency water treatment: updated recommendations. J Water Health. 2018;16(1):112-125.
Wilhelm, N., Kaufmann, A., Blanton, E., & Lantagne, D. (2018). Sodium hypochlorite dosage for household and emergency water treatment: updated recommendations. Journal of Water and Health, 16(1), 112-125. https://doi.org/10.2166/wh.2017.012
Wilhelm N, et al. Sodium Hypochlorite Dosage for Household and Emergency Water Treatment: Updated Recommendations. J Water Health. 2018;16(1):112-125. PubMed PMID: 29424725.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Sodium hypochlorite dosage for household and emergency water treatment: updated recommendations. AU - Wilhelm,Natalie, AU - Kaufmann,Anya, AU - Blanton,Elizabeth, AU - Lantagne,Daniele, PY - 2018/2/10/entrez PY - 2018/2/10/pubmed PY - 2018/6/22/medline SP - 112 EP - 125 JF - Journal of water and health JO - J Water Health VL - 16 IS - 1 N2 - Household water treatment with chlorine can improve the microbiological quality of household water and reduce diarrheal disease. We conducted laboratory and field studies to inform chlorine dosage recommendations. In the laboratory, reactors of varying turbidity (10-300 NTU) and total organic carbon (0-25 mg/L addition) were created, spiked with Escherichia coli, and dosed with 3.75 mg/L sodium hypochlorite. All reactors had >4 log reduction of E. coli 24 hours after chlorine addition. In the field, we tested 158 sources in 22 countries for chlorine demand. A 1.88 mg/L dosage for water from improved sources of <5 or <10 NTU turbidity met free chlorine residual criteria (≤2.0 mg/L at 1 hour, ≥0.2 mg/L at 24 hours) 91-94% and 82-87% of the time at 8 and 24 hours, respectively. In unimproved water source samples, a 3.75 mg/L dosage met relaxed criteria (≤4.0 mg/L at 1 hour, ≥0.2 mg/L after 24 hours) 83% and 65% of the time after 8 and 24 hours, respectively. We recommend water from improved/low turbidity sources be dosed at 1.88 mg/L and used within 24 hours, and from unimproved/higher turbidity sources be dosed at 3.75 mg/L and consumed within 8 hours. Further research on field effectiveness of chlorination is recommended. SN - 1477-8920 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/29424725/full_citation L2 - https://iwaponline.com/jwh/article-lookup/doi/10.2166/wh.2017.012 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -