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Diet and gall stones: effects of refined and unrefined carbohydrate diets on bile cholesterol saturation and bile acid metabolism.

Abstract

It has been suggested that consumption of refined carbohydrate foods (notably sugar and white flour) increases bile cholesterol saturation and hence the risk of cholesterol gall stone formation. To test this hypothesis, 13 subjects with probable cholesterol gall stones ate refined and unrefined carbohydrate diets, each for six weeks in random order. On the refined carbohydrate diet, subjects ate more refined sugar (mean = SEM: 106 +/- 7 vs 6 +/- 1 g/day, p less than 0.001), less dietary fibre (13 +/- 1 vs 27 +/- 3 g/day, p less than 0.001), and had a higher energy intake (9.17 +/- 0.66 vs 7.16 +/- 0.64 MJ/day, p less than 0.001). After each diet, the lipid composition of duodenal bile and bile acid kinetics was determined. The cholesterol saturation index of bile was higher on the refined carbohydrate diet in all but one subject, with a mean value of 1.50 +/- 0.10 compared with 1.20 +/- 0.12 on the unrefined diet (p less than 0.005). On the refined carbohydrate diet, bile contained relatively less cholic acid and slightly more deoxycholic acid. There were, however, no significant differences in total or individual bile acid pool sizes. There were also no differences in the rates of primary bile acid synthesis or fractional turnover on the two diets. Consumption of carbohydrate in refined form increases bile cholesterol saturation. The risk of gall stones might be reduced by avoidance of refined carbohydrate foods.

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  • Authors

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    Source

    Gut 24:1 1983 Jan pg 2-6

    MeSH

    Adult
    Bile
    Bile Acids and Salts
    Cholelithiasis
    Cholesterol
    Dietary Carbohydrates
    Dietary Fiber
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Phospholipids

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    6293939

    Citation

    Thornton, J R., et al. "Diet and Gall Stones: Effects of Refined and Unrefined Carbohydrate Diets On Bile Cholesterol Saturation and Bile Acid Metabolism." Gut, vol. 24, no. 1, 1983, pp. 2-6.
    Thornton JR, Emmett PM, Heaton KW. Diet and gall stones: effects of refined and unrefined carbohydrate diets on bile cholesterol saturation and bile acid metabolism. Gut. 1983;24(1):2-6.
    Thornton, J. R., Emmett, P. M., & Heaton, K. W. (1983). Diet and gall stones: effects of refined and unrefined carbohydrate diets on bile cholesterol saturation and bile acid metabolism. Gut, 24(1), pp. 2-6.
    Thornton JR, Emmett PM, Heaton KW. Diet and Gall Stones: Effects of Refined and Unrefined Carbohydrate Diets On Bile Cholesterol Saturation and Bile Acid Metabolism. Gut. 1983;24(1):2-6. PubMed PMID: 6293939.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Diet and gall stones: effects of refined and unrefined carbohydrate diets on bile cholesterol saturation and bile acid metabolism. AU - Thornton,J R, AU - Emmett,P M, AU - Heaton,K W, PY - 1983/1/1/pubmed PY - 1983/1/1/medline PY - 1983/1/1/entrez SP - 2 EP - 6 JF - Gut JO - Gut VL - 24 IS - 1 N2 - It has been suggested that consumption of refined carbohydrate foods (notably sugar and white flour) increases bile cholesterol saturation and hence the risk of cholesterol gall stone formation. To test this hypothesis, 13 subjects with probable cholesterol gall stones ate refined and unrefined carbohydrate diets, each for six weeks in random order. On the refined carbohydrate diet, subjects ate more refined sugar (mean = SEM: 106 +/- 7 vs 6 +/- 1 g/day, p less than 0.001), less dietary fibre (13 +/- 1 vs 27 +/- 3 g/day, p less than 0.001), and had a higher energy intake (9.17 +/- 0.66 vs 7.16 +/- 0.64 MJ/day, p less than 0.001). After each diet, the lipid composition of duodenal bile and bile acid kinetics was determined. The cholesterol saturation index of bile was higher on the refined carbohydrate diet in all but one subject, with a mean value of 1.50 +/- 0.10 compared with 1.20 +/- 0.12 on the unrefined diet (p less than 0.005). On the refined carbohydrate diet, bile contained relatively less cholic acid and slightly more deoxycholic acid. There were, however, no significant differences in total or individual bile acid pool sizes. There were also no differences in the rates of primary bile acid synthesis or fractional turnover on the two diets. Consumption of carbohydrate in refined form increases bile cholesterol saturation. The risk of gall stones might be reduced by avoidance of refined carbohydrate foods. SN - 0017-5749 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/6293939/full_citation L2 - http://gut.bmj.com/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=6293939 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -