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An international classification and grading system for age-related maculopathy and age-related macular degeneration. The International ARM Epidemiological Study Group.

Abstract

A common detection and classification system is needed for epidemiologic studies of age-related maculopathy (ARM). Such a grading scheme for ARM is described in this paper. ARM is defined as a degenerative disorder in persons > or = 50 years of age characterized on grading of color fundus transparencies by the presence of the following abnormalities in the macular area: soft drusen > or = 63 microns, hyperpigmentation and/or hypopigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), RPE and associated neurosensory detachment, (peri)retinal hemorrhages, geographic atrophy of the RPE, or (peri)retinal fibrous scarring in the absence of other retinal (vascular) disorders. Visual acuity is not used to define the presence of ARM. Early ARM is defined as the presence of drusen and RPE pigmentary abnormalities described above; late ARM is similar to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and includes dry AMD (geographic atrophy of the RPE in the absence of neovascular AMD) or neovascular AMD (RPE detachment, hemorrhages, and/or scars as described above). Methods to take and grade fundus transparencies are described.

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  • Authors

    , , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Aged
    Fundus Oculi
    Humans
    International Cooperation
    Macula Lutea
    Macular Degeneration
    Middle Aged
    Photography

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    7604360

    Citation

    Bird, A C., et al. "An International Classification and Grading System for Age-related Maculopathy and Age-related Macular Degeneration. the International ARM Epidemiological Study Group." Survey of Ophthalmology, vol. 39, no. 5, 1995, pp. 367-74.
    Bird AC, Bressler NM, Bressler SB, et al. An international classification and grading system for age-related maculopathy and age-related macular degeneration. The International ARM Epidemiological Study Group. Surv Ophthalmol. 1995;39(5):367-74.
    Bird, A. C., Bressler, N. M., Bressler, S. B., Chisholm, I. H., Coscas, G., Davis, M. D., ... Klein, R. (1995). An international classification and grading system for age-related maculopathy and age-related macular degeneration. The International ARM Epidemiological Study Group. Survey of Ophthalmology, 39(5), pp. 367-74.
    Bird AC, et al. An International Classification and Grading System for Age-related Maculopathy and Age-related Macular Degeneration. the International ARM Epidemiological Study Group. Surv Ophthalmol. 1995;39(5):367-74. PubMed PMID: 7604360.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - An international classification and grading system for age-related maculopathy and age-related macular degeneration. The International ARM Epidemiological Study Group. A1 - Bird,A C, AU - Bressler,N M, AU - Bressler,S B, AU - Chisholm,I H, AU - Coscas,G, AU - Davis,M D, AU - de Jong,P T, AU - Klaver,C C, AU - Klein,B E, AU - Klein,R, PY - 1995/3/1/pubmed PY - 1995/3/1/medline PY - 1995/3/1/entrez SP - 367 EP - 74 JF - Survey of ophthalmology JO - Surv Ophthalmol VL - 39 IS - 5 N2 - A common detection and classification system is needed for epidemiologic studies of age-related maculopathy (ARM). Such a grading scheme for ARM is described in this paper. ARM is defined as a degenerative disorder in persons > or = 50 years of age characterized on grading of color fundus transparencies by the presence of the following abnormalities in the macular area: soft drusen > or = 63 microns, hyperpigmentation and/or hypopigmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), RPE and associated neurosensory detachment, (peri)retinal hemorrhages, geographic atrophy of the RPE, or (peri)retinal fibrous scarring in the absence of other retinal (vascular) disorders. Visual acuity is not used to define the presence of ARM. Early ARM is defined as the presence of drusen and RPE pigmentary abnormalities described above; late ARM is similar to age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and includes dry AMD (geographic atrophy of the RPE in the absence of neovascular AMD) or neovascular AMD (RPE detachment, hemorrhages, and/or scars as described above). Methods to take and grade fundus transparencies are described. SN - 0039-6257 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/7604360/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0039-6257(05)80092-X DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -