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Diabetes and diabetes risk factors in second- and third-generation Japanese Americans in Seattle, Washington.

Abstract

In Seattle, Washington, the prevalence of diabetes was 20% in second-generation (Nisei) Japanese-American men and 16% in Nisei women 45-74 years old, while the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was 36% in Nisei men and 40% in Nisei women. Hyperglycemia was less and duration of diabetes shorter in women. Related to diabetes and IGT in Nisei were higher fasting plasma insulin levels and central (visceral) adiposity. Prevalence of diabetes was low among the younger (34-53 years old) third-generation (Sansei) men and women. Among self-reported non-diabetic Sansei, however, prevalence of IGT was 19% in men and 29% in women, and IGT was associated with both increased fasting plasma insulin levels and more visceral fat, suggesting that many Sansei are at risk of future diabetes. An important lifestyle factor in the development of NIDD in Japanese Americans appeared to be dietary saturated (animal) fat. Another factor may be physical inactivity. In Japanese-American women, menopause also appeared to be an important risk factor. These risk factors may be related to fostering the accumulation of visceral fat and the development of insulin resistance. Five-year follow-up examinations performed in non-diabetic Nisei men and women have yielded additional information concerning the prognosis of IGT. Of those women who were IGT at baseline, 34% were diabetic at follow-up while 17% returned to normal. In men who had been IGT at baseline, 18% were diabetic at follow-up while 36% returned to normal. Over the 5-yr follow-up interval, proportionally more women progressed from normal to IGT (54%) then went from IGT to normal (17%). For men, roughly equal proportions went from normal to IGT (37%) as from IGT to normal (36%). It would therefore appear that greater proportions of Nisei women are progressing to IGT and to NIDD than are Nisei men. This observation may be related to the increased risk of developing central obesity and insulin resistance following menopause. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, and/or coronary heart disease) was increased in Japanese Americans with IGT and NIDD. Neuropathy and retinopathy were associated only with NIDD.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle.

    , , , , , , , ,

    Source

    Diabetes research and clinical practice 24 Suppl: 1994 Oct pg S43-52

    MeSH

    Adult
    Age Distribution
    Aged
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1
    Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2
    Family Health
    Female
    Humans
    Japan
    Male
    Menopause
    Middle Aged
    Risk Factors
    Sex Distribution
    Washington

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    7859632

    Citation

    Fujimoto, W Y., et al. "Diabetes and Diabetes Risk Factors in Second- and Third-generation Japanese Americans in Seattle, Washington." Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, vol. 24 Suppl, 1994, pp. S43-52.
    Fujimoto WY, Bergstrom RW, Boyko EJ, et al. Diabetes and diabetes risk factors in second- and third-generation Japanese Americans in Seattle, Washington. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1994;24 Suppl:S43-52.
    Fujimoto, W. Y., Bergstrom, R. W., Boyko, E. J., Kinyoun, J. L., Leonetti, D. L., Newell-Morris, L. L., ... Tsunehara, C. H. (1994). Diabetes and diabetes risk factors in second- and third-generation Japanese Americans in Seattle, Washington. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 24 Suppl, pp. S43-52.
    Fujimoto WY, et al. Diabetes and Diabetes Risk Factors in Second- and Third-generation Japanese Americans in Seattle, Washington. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 1994;24 Suppl:S43-52. PubMed PMID: 7859632.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Diabetes and diabetes risk factors in second- and third-generation Japanese Americans in Seattle, Washington. A1 - Fujimoto,W Y, AU - Bergstrom,R W, AU - Boyko,E J, AU - Kinyoun,J L, AU - Leonetti,D L, AU - Newell-Morris,L L, AU - Robinson,L R, AU - Shuman,W P, AU - Stolov,W C, AU - Tsunehara,C H, PY - 1994/10/1/pubmed PY - 1994/10/1/medline PY - 1994/10/1/entrez SP - S43 EP - 52 JF - Diabetes research and clinical practice JO - Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. VL - 24 Suppl N2 - In Seattle, Washington, the prevalence of diabetes was 20% in second-generation (Nisei) Japanese-American men and 16% in Nisei women 45-74 years old, while the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) was 36% in Nisei men and 40% in Nisei women. Hyperglycemia was less and duration of diabetes shorter in women. Related to diabetes and IGT in Nisei were higher fasting plasma insulin levels and central (visceral) adiposity. Prevalence of diabetes was low among the younger (34-53 years old) third-generation (Sansei) men and women. Among self-reported non-diabetic Sansei, however, prevalence of IGT was 19% in men and 29% in women, and IGT was associated with both increased fasting plasma insulin levels and more visceral fat, suggesting that many Sansei are at risk of future diabetes. An important lifestyle factor in the development of NIDD in Japanese Americans appeared to be dietary saturated (animal) fat. Another factor may be physical inactivity. In Japanese-American women, menopause also appeared to be an important risk factor. These risk factors may be related to fostering the accumulation of visceral fat and the development of insulin resistance. Five-year follow-up examinations performed in non-diabetic Nisei men and women have yielded additional information concerning the prognosis of IGT. Of those women who were IGT at baseline, 34% were diabetic at follow-up while 17% returned to normal. In men who had been IGT at baseline, 18% were diabetic at follow-up while 36% returned to normal. Over the 5-yr follow-up interval, proportionally more women progressed from normal to IGT (54%) then went from IGT to normal (17%). For men, roughly equal proportions went from normal to IGT (37%) as from IGT to normal (36%). It would therefore appear that greater proportions of Nisei women are progressing to IGT and to NIDD than are Nisei men. This observation may be related to the increased risk of developing central obesity and insulin resistance following menopause. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease (hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, and/or coronary heart disease) was increased in Japanese Americans with IGT and NIDD. Neuropathy and retinopathy were associated only with NIDD. SN - 0168-8227 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/7859632/full_citation L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0168-8227(94)90226-7 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -