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AD is a disorder that affects up to 12% of the pediatric population. This disease is multifactorial and encompasses a wide array of etiologic factors. Strong evidence has existed in the literature over the past century for the role of inhalant and food allergies in the pathogenesis of AD. Much work is currently ongoing to delineate the role of individual cellular components, cytokines, and other mediators in the pathogenesis of AD. The answers to these questions, as well as a more comprehensive understanding of hereditary factors, will provide key information to our overall understanding of AD and our ability to treat patients with this disease more effectively in the future.