Epidemiology of in situ and invasive breast cancer in women aged under 45.Br J Cancer 1996; 73(10):1298-305BJ
The incidence of in situ breast cancer in the USA has increased rapidly in recent years, even among young women. A population-based case-control study of 1616 breast cancer cases aged under 45 in the USA was used to examine risk factors for in situ, local and regional/distant tumours. Almost 60% of in situ tumours were detected by routine mammograms compared with 18% of local tumours and 8% of regional/distant tumours. After adjustment for screening history and established risk factors, family history of breast cancer in a first-degree relative and African-American race were associated with an increased risk of all stages of breast cancer. The associations with nulliparity, a previous breast biopsy and body mass index were significantly stronger for in situ tumours than for local or regional/distant disease. Alcohol consumption was associated with an increasing trend in risk of regional/distant tumours but not of earlier stage tumours, indicating that alcohol may be involved in late-stage events. Analyses by histological type of in situ tumours suggested that both ductal and lobular carcinoma in situ were associated with most established breast cancer risk factors, and the magnitude of association tended to be greater for the ductal form.