Typical and atypical presentations of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The role of esophageal testing in diagnosis and management.Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1996; 25(1):75-102GC
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common disease with many typical and atypical forms of presentation. In the classic presentations of GERD with heartburn and regurgitation, esophageal testing, except for endoscopy, is only required for poorly responding patients or prior to surgical therapy. The atypical presentations of GERD, including chest pain, asthma, and ear, nose, and throat complaints, frequently are not associated with heartburn or regurgitation. Esophageal testing, particularly 24-hour pH monitoring is key to making the diagnosis and ensuring adequate acid suppression.