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Health effects of trans fatty acids.

Abstract

trans Fatty acids are formed during the process of partial hydrogenation in which liquid vegetable oils are converted to margarine and vegetable shortening. Concern has existed that this process may have adverse consequences because natural essential fatty acids are destroyed and the new artificial isomers are structurally similar to saturated fats, lack the essential metabolic activity of the parent compounds, and inhibit the enzymatic desaturation of linoleic and linolenic acid. In the past 5 y a series of metabolic studies has provided unequivocal evidence that trans fatty acids increase plasma concentrations of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and reduce concentrations of high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol relative to the parent natural fat. In these same studies, trans fatty acids increased the plasma ratio of total to HDL cholesterol nearly twofold compared with saturated fats. On the basis of these metabolic effects and the known relation of blood lipid concentrations to risk of coronary artery disease, we estimate conservatively that 30,000 premature deaths/y in the United States are attributable to consumption of trans fatty acids. Epidemiologic studies, although not conclusive on their own, are consistent with adverse effects of this magnitude or even larger. Because there are no known nutritional benefits of trans fatty acids and clear adverse metabolic consequences exist, prudent public policy would dictate that their consumption be minimized and that information on the trans fatty acid content of foods be available to consumers.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

    Source

    The American journal of clinical nutrition 66:4 Suppl 1997 10 pg 1006S-1010S

    MeSH

    Cholesterol
    Cholesterol, HDL
    Coronary Disease
    Dietary Fats, Unsaturated
    Energy Intake
    Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Risk Factors

    Pub Type(s)

    Comparative Study
    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    9322581

    Citation

    Ascherio, A, and W C. Willett. "Health Effects of Trans Fatty Acids." The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 66, no. 4 Suppl, 1997, 1006S-1010S.
    Ascherio A, Willett WC. Health effects of trans fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(4 Suppl):1006S-1010S.
    Ascherio, A., & Willett, W. C. (1997). Health effects of trans fatty acids. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66(4 Suppl), 1006S-1010S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/66.4.1006S.
    Ascherio A, Willett WC. Health Effects of Trans Fatty Acids. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(4 Suppl):1006S-1010S. PubMed PMID: 9322581.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Health effects of trans fatty acids. AU - Ascherio,A, AU - Willett,W C, PY - 1997/10/10/pubmed PY - 1997/10/10/medline PY - 1997/10/10/entrez SP - 1006S EP - 1010S JF - The American journal of clinical nutrition JO - Am. J. Clin. Nutr. VL - 66 IS - 4 Suppl N2 - trans Fatty acids are formed during the process of partial hydrogenation in which liquid vegetable oils are converted to margarine and vegetable shortening. Concern has existed that this process may have adverse consequences because natural essential fatty acids are destroyed and the new artificial isomers are structurally similar to saturated fats, lack the essential metabolic activity of the parent compounds, and inhibit the enzymatic desaturation of linoleic and linolenic acid. In the past 5 y a series of metabolic studies has provided unequivocal evidence that trans fatty acids increase plasma concentrations of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and reduce concentrations of high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol relative to the parent natural fat. In these same studies, trans fatty acids increased the plasma ratio of total to HDL cholesterol nearly twofold compared with saturated fats. On the basis of these metabolic effects and the known relation of blood lipid concentrations to risk of coronary artery disease, we estimate conservatively that 30,000 premature deaths/y in the United States are attributable to consumption of trans fatty acids. Epidemiologic studies, although not conclusive on their own, are consistent with adverse effects of this magnitude or even larger. Because there are no known nutritional benefits of trans fatty acids and clear adverse metabolic consequences exist, prudent public policy would dictate that their consumption be minimized and that information on the trans fatty acid content of foods be available to consumers. SN - 0002-9165 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9322581/full_citation L2 - https://academic.oup.com/ajcn/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/ajcn/66.4.1006S DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -