Relation of smoking and alcohol and coffee consumption to active Helicobacter pylori infection: cross sectional study.BMJ. 1997 Dec 06; 315(7121):1489-92.BMJ
To assess the relation of smoking and alcohol and coffee consumption to active Helicobacter pylori infection.
Cross sectional study of patients attending a general practitioner. Active H pylori infection was measured by the 15C-urea breath test and detailed quantitative information on smoking and on alcohol and coffee consumption was obtained by a standardised self administered questionnaire.
One general practice in Germany.
447 patients aged 15-79 who had not had peptic ulcer disease or treatment for H pylori infection.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES
Prevalence of H pylori infection according to smoking and alcohol and coffee consumption.
Overall prevalence of infection was 21% (94/447). There was no significant relation between smoking and active H pylori infection. Alcohol consumption showed a negative dose-response relation and coffee consumption a positive dose-response relation with active infection. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds ratios for patients who drank < or = 75 g and > 75 g of ethanol a week compared with non-drinkers were 0.90 (95% confidence interval 0.55 to 1.59) and 0.33 (0.16 to 0.68), respectively (P value for trend 0.005, assuming that 1 litre of beer and 0.51 of wine contain on average 50 g of ethanol in south Germany). Adjusted odds ratios for patients who drank < 3 cups and > or = 3 cups of coffee per day compared with those who did not drink coffee were 1.49 (0.71 to 3.12) and 2.49 (1.23 to 5.03), respectively (P value for trend 0.007).
These results suggest a protective effect of alcohol consumption against active infection with H pylori and an opposite effect of coffee consumption.