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The relation of physical activity to risk for symptomatic gallstone disease in men.

Abstract

BACKGROUND

Gallstone disease is a major source of morbidity in the United States. Gallstones are twice as common in women as in men, but severe biliary events leading to surgery occur with equal frequency in the two sexes.

OBJECTIVE

To determine whether physical activity decreases risk for symptomatic gallstone disease in men.

DESIGN

Prospective cohort study.

SETTING

U.S. male health professionals.

PATIENTS

45,813 men 40 to 75 years of age were followed from 1986 to 1994.

MEASUREMENTS

Questionnaires mailed in 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, and 1994 asked about physical activity, incidence of gallstone disease, age, body weight, dietary and alcohol intake, smoking habits, use of medications, and occurrence of diagnosed medical conditions other than gallstone disease.

RESULTS

828 men reported having newly symptomatic gallstones (diagnosed by ultrasonography or radiography) or undergoing cholecystectomy for recent symptoms. After adjustment for multiple confounders, increased physical activity was inversely related to risk for symptomatic gallstone disease. When extreme quintiles were compared, men younger than 65 years of age had a stronger inverse association (multivariate relative risk, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.44 to 0.78]) with risk than did men 65 years of age or older (relative risk, 0.75 [CI, 0.52 to 1.09]). In contrast, sedentary behavior was positively related to risk for symptomatic gallstone disease. Men who watched television more than 40 hours per week had a higher risk for symptomatic gallstones than men who watched less than 6 hours per week (relative risk for older men, 3.32 [CI, 1.51 to 7.27]; relative risk for younger men, 1.58 [CI, 0.38 to 6.48]).

CONCLUSIONS

Physical activity may play an important role in the prevention of symptomatic gallstone disease in men even beyond its benefit for control of body weight. The results of this study indicate that 34% of cases of symptomatic gallstone disease in men could be prevented by increasing exercise to 30 minutes of endurance-type training five times per week.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Harvard School of Public Health, and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

    , , , , ,

    Source

    Annals of internal medicine 128:6 1998 Mar 15 pg 417-25

    MeSH

    Adult
    Age Factors
    Aged
    Body Weight
    Cholelithiasis
    Diet
    Exercise
    Humans
    Incidence
    Life Style
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Prospective Studies
    Regression Analysis
    Risk Factors
    Surveys and Questionnaires
    United States

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    9499324

    Citation

    Leitzmann, M F., et al. "The Relation of Physical Activity to Risk for Symptomatic Gallstone Disease in Men." Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 128, no. 6, 1998, pp. 417-25.
    Leitzmann MF, Giovannucci EL, Rimm EB, et al. The relation of physical activity to risk for symptomatic gallstone disease in men. Ann Intern Med. 1998;128(6):417-25.
    Leitzmann, M. F., Giovannucci, E. L., Rimm, E. B., Stampfer, M. J., Spiegelman, D., Wing, A. L., & Willett, W. C. (1998). The relation of physical activity to risk for symptomatic gallstone disease in men. Annals of Internal Medicine, 128(6), pp. 417-25.
    Leitzmann MF, et al. The Relation of Physical Activity to Risk for Symptomatic Gallstone Disease in Men. Ann Intern Med. 1998 Mar 15;128(6):417-25. PubMed PMID: 9499324.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The relation of physical activity to risk for symptomatic gallstone disease in men. AU - Leitzmann,M F, AU - Giovannucci,E L, AU - Rimm,E B, AU - Stampfer,M J, AU - Spiegelman,D, AU - Wing,A L, AU - Willett,W C, PY - 1998/3/14/pubmed PY - 1998/3/14/medline PY - 1998/3/14/entrez SP - 417 EP - 25 JF - Annals of internal medicine JO - Ann. Intern. Med. VL - 128 IS - 6 N2 - BACKGROUND: Gallstone disease is a major source of morbidity in the United States. Gallstones are twice as common in women as in men, but severe biliary events leading to surgery occur with equal frequency in the two sexes. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether physical activity decreases risk for symptomatic gallstone disease in men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: U.S. male health professionals. PATIENTS: 45,813 men 40 to 75 years of age were followed from 1986 to 1994. MEASUREMENTS: Questionnaires mailed in 1986, 1988, 1990, 1992, and 1994 asked about physical activity, incidence of gallstone disease, age, body weight, dietary and alcohol intake, smoking habits, use of medications, and occurrence of diagnosed medical conditions other than gallstone disease. RESULTS: 828 men reported having newly symptomatic gallstones (diagnosed by ultrasonography or radiography) or undergoing cholecystectomy for recent symptoms. After adjustment for multiple confounders, increased physical activity was inversely related to risk for symptomatic gallstone disease. When extreme quintiles were compared, men younger than 65 years of age had a stronger inverse association (multivariate relative risk, 0.58 [95% CI, 0.44 to 0.78]) with risk than did men 65 years of age or older (relative risk, 0.75 [CI, 0.52 to 1.09]). In contrast, sedentary behavior was positively related to risk for symptomatic gallstone disease. Men who watched television more than 40 hours per week had a higher risk for symptomatic gallstones than men who watched less than 6 hours per week (relative risk for older men, 3.32 [CI, 1.51 to 7.27]; relative risk for younger men, 1.58 [CI, 0.38 to 6.48]). CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity may play an important role in the prevention of symptomatic gallstone disease in men even beyond its benefit for control of body weight. The results of this study indicate that 34% of cases of symptomatic gallstone disease in men could be prevented by increasing exercise to 30 minutes of endurance-type training five times per week. SN - 0003-4819 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/9499324/full_citation L2 - https://www.annals.org/article.aspx?volume=128&issue=6&page=417 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -