Meal type affects heartburn severity.Dig Dis Sci 1998; 43(3):485-90DD
This study compared heartburn severity, number of episodes, and changes in esophageal pH induced by three meals. Symptomatic volunteers consumed the following on different occasions: McDonald's Quarter Pounder, french fries, and chocolate shake; McDonald's Sausage Biscuit with Egg, cheese, raw onion, and chocolate milk; and Wendy's Chili and red wine. Increases in reflux episodes over baseline for the hamburger, sausage biscuit, and chili meals were 28.8 +/- 5.7, 36 +/- 5.5 and 43.7 +/- 8.8, respectively. The sausage biscuit and chili increased reflux compared to the hamburger (P < 0.05), but the chili did not differ statistically from the sausage biscuit meal. Onset and peak heartburn for the hamburger, sausage biscuit, and chili meals were 45 and 90, 30 and 120, and 15 and 150 min, respectively. Despite lower fat content, chili and red wine promoted more reflux and heartburn pain than the other meals, demonstrating the importance of meal selection in provocative meal studies.