- Polyphenolic content, antiradical activity, stability and microbiological quality of elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) extracts. [Journal Article]
- ASActa Sci Pol Technol Aliment 2017 Oct-Dec; 16(4):393-401
- CONCLUSIONS: The research findings may support the selection of certain cultivars for industrial applications. The high stability of anthocyanins and low level of microbiological impurities in elderberry extracts ensure the high quality of such a raw material in food and pharmaceutical processing.
- Complete genome sequence of a novel bromovirus infecting elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) in the Czech Republic. [Journal Article]
- AVArch Virol 2018; 163(2):567-570
- The genus Bromovirus currently contains six species whose members have relatively narrow host ranges. In the present work, a new bromovirus infecting elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) is reported. dsRNA...
The genus Bromovirus currently contains six species whose members have relatively narrow host ranges. In the present work, a new bromovirus infecting elderberry (Sambucus nigra L.) is reported. dsRNA was purified and sequenced by next-generation sequencing, and with minimal additional completion by Sanger sequencing, the full tripartite genome was obtained. RNA1 is 3241 nt long and contains ORF1 (1a protein), RNA2 is 2810 nt long and contains ORF2 (2a protein), and RNA3 is 2244 nt long and contains ORF3a (movement protein) and ORF3b (coat protein, CP), separated by an intercistronic poly(A) stretch. Proteins 1a and 2a showed highest sequence identity (69.9% and 69.4%) to the corresponding proteins of melandrium yellow fleck virus. The coat protein showed highest sequence identity (67.9%) to that of brome mosaic virus. The genome shows a typical bromovirus organisation comprising of all the conserved protein domains within the genus. Phylogenetic analysis supports the assignment of this virus as a new member of the genus Bromovirus, for which the name "sambucus virus S" (SVS) is proposed.
- Assessment of the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic activity and phytochemical screening of aqueous extracts of Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. (ADOXACEAE). [Journal Article]
- AAAn Acad Bras Cienc 2017; 89(3 Suppl):2141-2154
- The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic activity of Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. aqueous extracts on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L. as well as deter...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative and antigenotoxic activity of Sambucus australis Cham. & Schltdl. aqueous extracts on the cell cycle of Allium cepa L. as well as determine the phenolic compounds in such extracts. S. australis inflorescences and leaves of two accessions were used for aqueous extract preparation at concentrations: 0.003 g/ml and 0.012 g/ml. A. cepa bulbs were rooted in distilled water and, subsequently, placed in treatments for 24 hours. Rootlets were collected and fixed in modified Carnoy's solution for 24 hours and kept. The squash technique was performed for slide preparation. Root tips were smashed and stained with 2% acetic orcein, and a total of 4000 cells per treatment were analyzed. The phenolic compounds were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography and data was analyzed using the Scott-Knott test. The results show that S. australis aqueous extracts have antiproliferative potential. Besides, the extracts prepared from S. australis leaves of both accessions at a concentration of 0.012 g/ml have shown antigenotoxic activity. The phytochemical analysis allowed us to determine the presence of flavonoids and phenolic acids, of which kaempferol and chrologenic acid were the most predominant compounds in the extracts from the inflorescences and leaves, respectively.
- Iridoid Glycosides from the Twigs of Sambucus williamsii var. coreana and Their Biological Activities. [Journal Article]
- JNJ Nat Prod 2017 Sep 22; 80(9):2502-2508
- Six new iridoid glycosides, sambucusides A-F (1-6), and two known derivatives (7 and 8) were isolated from a methanol extract of the twigs of Sambucus williamsii var. coreana. Their chemical structur...
Six new iridoid glycosides, sambucusides A-F (1-6), and two known derivatives (7 and 8) were isolated from a methanol extract of the twigs of Sambucus williamsii var. coreana. Their chemical structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including NMR ((1)H and (13)C NMR, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY) and HRMS. All isolated compounds (1-8) were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against four human cancer cell lines (A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and Bt549). Their effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV-2 cells and their neuroprotective effects through induction of nerve growth factor (NGF) in C6 glioma cells were also examined. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 showed cytotoxic effects (IC50 1.3-8.7 μM) against the SK-MEL-2 and Bt549 cell lines and inhibitory effects on NO production (IC50 of 0.9, 1.3, and 1.2 μM, respectively). Compounds 2, 4, and 8 exhibited NGF-releasing effects (147.0 ± 5.8%, 158.7 ± 5.2%, and 152.6 ± 7.3%, respectively).
- Label-free chronopotentiometric glycoprofiling of prostate specific antigen using sialic acid recognizing lectins. [Journal Article]
- BBioelectrochemistry 2017; 117:89-94
- In recent decades, it has become clear that most of human proteins are glycosylated and that protein glycosylation plays an important role in health and diseases. At present, simple, fast and inexpen...
In recent decades, it has become clear that most of human proteins are glycosylated and that protein glycosylation plays an important role in health and diseases. At present, simple, fast and inexpensive methods are sought for clinical applications and particularly for improved diagnostics of various diseases, including cancer. We propose a label- and reagent-free electrochemical method based on chronopotentiometric stripping (CPS) analysis and a hanging mercury drop electrode for the detection of interaction of sialylated protein biomarker a prostate specific antigen (PSA) with two important lectins: Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA) and Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA). Incubation of PSA-modified electrode with specific SNA lectin resulted in an increase of CPS peak H of the complex as compared to this peak of individual PSA. By adjusting polarization current and temperature, PSA-MAA interaction can be either eliminated or distinguished from the more abundant PSA-SNA complex. CPS data were in a good agreement with the data obtained by complementary methods, namely surface plasmon resonance and fluorescent lectin microarray. It can be anticipated that CPS will find application in glycomics and proteomics.
- Sambulin A and B, non-glycosidic iridoids from Sambucus ebulus, exert significant in vitro anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages via inhibition of MAPKs's phosphorylation. [Journal Article]
- JEJ Ethnopharmacol 2017 Jul 12; 206:347-352
- CONCLUSIONS: The prominent bioactivities exerted by two iridoids will contribute to explanation of the usage of S. ebulus in traditional medicine against rheumatoid diseases.
- Altered glycan accessibility on native immunoglobulin G complexes in early rheumatoid arthritis and its changes during therapy. [Journal Article]
- CEClin Exp Immunol 2017; 189(3):372-382
- The goal of this study was to investigate the glycosylation profile of native immunoglobulin (Ig)G present in serum immune complexes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To accomplish this, le...
The goal of this study was to investigate the glycosylation profile of native immunoglobulin (Ig)G present in serum immune complexes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To accomplish this, lectin binding assays, detecting the accessibility of glycans present on IgG-containing immune complexes by biotinylated lectins, were employed. Lectins capturing fucosyl residues (AAL), fucosylated tri-mannose N-glycan core sites (LCA), terminal sialic acid residues (SNA) and O-glycosidically linked galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNac-L) were used. Patients with recent-onset RA at baseline and after 3-year follow-up were investigated. We found that native IgG was complexed significantly more often with IgM, C1q, C3c and C-reactive protein (CRP) in RA patients, suggesting alterations of the native structure of IgG. The total accessibility of fucose residues on captured immune complexes to the respective lectin was significantly higher in patients with RA. Moreover, fucose accessibility on IgG-containing immune complexes correlated positively with the levels of antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP). We also observed a significantly higher accessibility to sialic acid residues and galactose/GalNAc glyco-epitopes in native complexed IgG of patients with RA at baseline. While sialic acid accessibility increased during treatment, the accessibility of galactose/GalNAc decreased. Hence, successful treatment of RA was associated with an increase in the SNA/GalNAc-L ratio. Interestingly, the SNA/GalNAc-L ratio in particular rises after glucocorticoid treatment. In summary, this study shows the exposure of glycans in native complexed IgG of patients with early RA, revealing particular glycosylation patterns and its changes following pharmaceutical treatment.
- Discriminant Analyses of the Polyphenol Content of American Elderberry Juice from Multiple Environments Provide Genotype Fingerprint. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Agric Food Chem 2017 May 24; 65(20):4044-4050
- The cultivation of American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) continues to increase as the use of this botanical has expanded. Elderberries contain a variety of polyphenols, including ant...
The cultivation of American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) continues to increase as the use of this botanical has expanded. Elderberries contain a variety of polyphenols, including anthocyanins, which have purported health benefits. However, information is lacking regarding the impact of environmental, management, and genotypic factors on the quantity and type of polyphenols and anthocyanins produced. Quantification of 16 polyphenols including eight anthocyanins present in juice from three genotypes of American elderberry grown at two Missouri sites from 2013 to 2014 was performed. Large variances in anthocyanin and other polyphenol content were observed between the different harvest seasons, locations, and genotypes. Although specific phytochemical trends due to those factors were not apparent, a discriminant analysis was able to correctly identify 45 of 48 juice samples by genotype, based on their polyphenol profiles. This type of characterization could be beneficial in elderberry authentication studies and to help develop and document high-quality dietary supplement products with specific phytochemical contents.
- Antiproliferative and Apoptotic Potential of Cyanidin-Based Anthocyanins on Melanoma Cells. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Mol Sci 2017 Apr 30; 18(5)
- Elderberries are known for their high anthocyanins content, which have been shown to possess anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects. Anthocyanins enriched extract (AEE) was obtained from elderber...
Elderberries are known for their high anthocyanins content, which have been shown to possess anti-proliferative and anti-cancer effects. Anthocyanins enriched extract (AEE) was obtained from elderberries and was characterized by LC/DAD/ESI-MS analysis. Five cyanidin-based anthocyanins were identified, among which Cy-3-O-samb was the major compound (51%). The total anthocyanins content of AEE was 495 mg Cy-3-O-samb/100 g FW. AEE inhibited proliferation of metastatic B16-F10 murine melanoma cells, in a concentration-dependent manner, with an IC50 of 264.3 μg/mL. LDH (lactate dehydrogenase), as a marker of membrane integrity, increased 74% in B16-F10 cells treated with 250 μg/mL AEE, compared to control. It was observed that apoptosis is the mechanism of melanoma cell death after AEE treatment, confirmed morphologically by acridine orange/ethidium bromide double staining and TUNEL analysis. These results indicate that elderberry-derived anthocyanins might be utilized in future applications as topical adjuvant in skin cancer therapy.
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- Unveiling elderflowers (Sambucus nigra L.) volatile terpenic and norisoprenoids profile: Effects of different postharvest conditions. [Journal Article]
- FCFood Chem 2017 Aug 15; 229:276-285
- The volatile terpenic and norisoprenoids profile from elderflowers (Sambucus nigra L.) was established for two cultivars by multidimensional gas chromatography. From 47 monoterpenic, 13 sesquiterpene...
The volatile terpenic and norisoprenoids profile from elderflowers (Sambucus nigra L.) was established for two cultivars by multidimensional gas chromatography. From 47 monoterpenic, 13 sesquiterpenes and 5 norisoprenoids components, 38 are reported for the first time on elderflowers. Elderflower seasonality implies proper handling and storage conditions, for further processing, thus the impact of freezing, freeze-drying, air drying and vacuum packing, was evaluated on these potential aroma metabolites. The most suitable preservation methods, regarding the total metabolites content, were vacuum packing and freezing for intermediary storage times (24-32weeks) with a reported overall decrease of the volatile terpenic and norisoprenoids of up to 58.6%; and freezing, for longer period (52weeks), with a decrease of up to 47.4% (compared to fresh elderflowers). This study presents the most detailed terpenic and norisoprenoids elderflower profiling, and linalool oxides were proposed as markers for a more expedite assess to the impact of postharvest conditions.