- Risk markers for suicidality in autistic adults. [Journal Article]
- MAMol Autism 2018; 9:42
- CONCLUSIONS: Results confirm previously reported high rates of suicidality in ASC, and demonstrate that ASC diagnosis, and self-reported autistic traits in the general population are independent risk markers for suicidality. This suggests there are unique factors associated with autism and autistic traits that increase risk of suicidality. Camouflaging and unmet support needs appear to be risk markers for suicidality unique to ASC. Non-suicidal self-injury, employment, and mental health problems appear to be risk markers shared with the general population that are significantly more prevalent in the autistic community. Implications for understanding and prevention of suicide in ASC are discussed.
- Diagnostic tests for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in preschool children. [Review]
- CDCochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 Jul 24; 7:CD009044
- CONCLUSIONS: We observed substantial variation in sensitivity and specificity of all tests, which was likely attributable to methodological differences and variations in the clinical characteristics of populations recruited.When we compared summary statistics for ADOS, CARS, and ADI-R, we found that ADOS was most sensitive. All tools performed similarly for specificity. In lower prevalence populations, the risk of falsely identifying children who do not have ASD would be higher.Now available are new versions of tools that require diagnostic test accuracy assessment, ideally in clinically relevant situations, with methods at low risk of bias and in children of varying abilities.
- Subtyping the Autism Spectrum Disorder: Comparison of Children with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Autism Dev Disord 2018 Jul 24
- Since Hans Asperger's first description (Arch Psych Nervenkrankh 117:76-136, 1944), through Lorna Wing's translation and definition (Psychol Med 11:115-129, 1981), to its introduction in the fourth e...
Since Hans Asperger's first description (Arch Psych Nervenkrankh 117:76-136, 1944), through Lorna Wing's translation and definition (Psychol Med 11:115-129, 1981), to its introduction in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, 1994), Asperger Syndrome has always aroused huge interest and debate, until vanishing in the DSM fifth edition (2013). The debate regarded its diagnostic validity and its differentiation from high functioning autism (HFA). The present study aimed to examine whether AS differed from HFA in clinical profiles and to analyze the impact of DSM-5's innovation. Differences in cognitive, language, school functioning and comorbidities, were revealed when 80 AS and 70 HFA patients (3-18 years) were compared. Results suggested that an AS empirical distinction within autism spectrum disorder should be clinically useful.
- Serum tryptophan, tryptophan catabolites and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in subgroups of youngsters with autism spectrum disorders. [Journal Article]
- CNCNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets 2018 Jul 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Increased BDNF production and changes in the metabolism of tryptophan are associated with many ASD characteristics, showing particularly strong associations with childhood autism and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. Peripheral BDNF and tryptophan metabolism appear to take part in the pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorders and their phenotypes.
- Jurors' and Judges' Evaluation of Defendants with Autism and the Impact on Sentencing: A Systematic Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) Review of Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Courtroom. [Journal Article]
- JLJ Law Med 2017; 25(1):105-123
- Concern has been highlighted in the literature regarding how juries and judges handle cases which involve a defendant with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The relatively little research on judicial p...
Concern has been highlighted in the literature regarding how juries and judges handle cases which involve a defendant with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The relatively little research on judicial perceptions or decision-making regarding individuals with ASD indicates that judges have limited understanding and familiarity with high-functioning ASD (hfASD) and ASD. The present systematic review will identify studies which investigate jurors' (eg using mock jurors) and/or judges' evaluations of defendants with ASD and studies which investigate whether the defendant diagnosis of ASD impacts on sentencing. Only four studies were identified which investigated jurors' and/or judges' evaluations of a defendant with an ASD or investigated whether the defendant diagnosis of ASD impacts on sentencing. Further research is recommended which should include an evaluation of cases involving a defendant with an hfASD or ASD diagnosis comparing charges, pleas entered, procedural adjustments at court, evidence adduced about the defendant's condition, directions to juries, judicial remarks on the evidence (eg summing-up for the jury), verdicts and sentencing. This would enable the assessment of the specific offending behaviour and disorder of the defendant, and how these may be relevant to their mental capacity and culpability.
- Age-moderating effect in prepotent response inhibition in boys with Asperger syndrome: a 2.5 years longitudinal study. [Journal Article]
- EAEur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2018 Jun 25
- Following our previous cross-sectional analysis, indicating age-related improvements of response inhibition in a random-motor-generation task (MPT) in adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS), the pre...
Following our previous cross-sectional analysis, indicating age-related improvements of response inhibition in a random-motor-generation task (MPT) in adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS), the present study reports data from a 2.5-year follow-up examination in the original sample. We found more marked improvements within the follow-up interval in younger AS children, while older AS boys as well as typically developing (TD) boys remained at a relatively constant level throughout. The current longitudinal study further substantiates the notion that AS children (on average) catch up with TD children when they grow older as regards the basic inhibition of developing routine response patterns.
- The motivational process for physical activity in young adults with autism spectrum disorder. [Journal Article]
- DHDisabil Health J 2018 Jun 15
- CONCLUSIONS: These findings support utilizing the self-determination theory within health promotion efforts for young adults with ASD. Practitioners should focus on enhancing the perceived basic psychological needs of young adults within physical activity settings.
- New Protocol for Quantitative Analysis of Brain Cortex Electroencephalographic Activity in Patients With Psychiatric Disorders. [Journal Article]
- FNFront Neuroinform 2018; 12:27
- The interview is still the main and most important tool in psychiatrist's work. The neuroimaging methods such as CT or MRI are widely used in other fields of medicine, for instance neurology. However...
The interview is still the main and most important tool in psychiatrist's work. The neuroimaging methods such as CT or MRI are widely used in other fields of medicine, for instance neurology. However, psychiatry lacks effective quantitative methods to support of diagnosis. A novel neuroinformatic approach to help clinical patients by means of electroencephalographic technology in order to build foundations for finding neurophysiological biomarkers of psychiatric disorders is proposed. A cohort of 30 right-handed patients (21 males, 9 females) with psychiatric disorders (mainly with panic and anxiety disorder, Asperger syndrome as well as with phobic anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar affective disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, nonorganic hypersomnia, and moderate depressive episode) were examined using the dense array EEG amplifier in the P300 experiment. The results were compared with the control group of 30 healthy, right-handed male volunteers. The quantitative analysis of cortical activity was conducted using the sLORETA source localization algorithm. The most active Brodmann Areas were pointed out and a new quantitative observable of electrical charge flowing through the selected Brodmann Area is proposed. The precise methodology and research protocol for collecting EEG data as well as the roadmap of future investigations in this area are presented. The essential result of this study is the idea proven by the initial results of our experiments that it is possible to determine quantitatively biomarkers of particular psychiatric disorders in order to support the process of diagnosis and hopefully choose most appropriate medical treatment later.
- Children with autism spectrum disorders and selective mutism. [Journal Article]
- NDNeuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2018; 14:1163-1169
- CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the risk of overlap between ASD and SM.
New Search Next
- Autism Spectrum Disorder: Classification, diagnosis and therapy. [Review]
- P&TPharmacol Ther 2018 May 12
- Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The...
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The new diagnostic criteria of ASD focuses on two core domains: social communication impairment and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of ASD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades, with current estimates reaching up to 1 in 36 children. Hereditary factors, parental history of psychiatric disorders, pre-term births, and fetal exposure to psychotropic drugs or insecticides have all been linked to higher risk of ASD. Several scales such as the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), The Autism Spectrum Disorder-Observation for Children (ASD-OC), The Developmental, Dimensional, and Diagnostic Interview (3di), are available to aid in better assessing the behaviors and symptoms associated with ASD. Nearly 75% of ASD patients suffer from comorbid psychiatric illnesses or conditions, which may include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, Tourette syndrome, and others. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are available for ASD. Pharmacological treatments include psychostimulants, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, and alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists. These medications provide partial symptomatic relief of core symptoms of ASD or manage the symptoms of comorbid conditions. Non-pharmacological interventions, which show promising evidence in improving social interaction and verbal communication of ASD patients, include music therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and social behavioral therapy. Hormonal therapies with oxytocyin or vasopressin receptor antagonists have also shown some promise in improving core ASD symptoms. The use of vitamins, herbal remedies and nutritional supplements in conjunction with pharmacological and behavioral treatment appear to have some effect in symptomatic improvement in ASD, though additional studies are needed to confirm these benefits. Developing novel disease-modifying therapies may prove to be the ultimate intervention for sustained improvement of symptoms in ASD.