- Children with autism spectrum disorders and selective mutism. [Journal Article]
- NDNeuropsychiatr Dis Treat 2018; 14:1163-1169
- CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the risk of overlap between ASD and SM.
- Autism Spectrum Disorder classification, diagnosis and therapy. [Review]
- P&TPharmacol Ther 2018 May 12
- Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The...
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) refers to a group of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism, Asperger's syndrome (AS) and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS). The new diagnostic criteria of ASD focuses on two core domains: social communication impairment and restricted interests/repetitive behaviors. The prevalence of ASD has been steadily increasing over the past two decades, with current estimates reaching up to 1 in 36 children. Hereditary factors, parental history of psychiatric disorders, pre-term births, and fetal exposure to psychotropic drugs or insecticides have all been linked to higher risk of ASD. Several scales such as the Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), The Autism Spectrum Disorder-Observation for Children (ASD-OC), The Developmental, Dimensional, and Diagnostic Interview (3di), are available to aid in better assessing the behaviors and symptoms associated with ASD. Nearly 75% of ASD patients suffer from comorbid psychiatric illnesses or conditions, which may include attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, Tourette syndrome, and others. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are available for ASD. Pharmacological treatments include psychostimulants, atypical antipsychotics, antidepressants, and alpha-2 adrenergic receptor agonists. These medications provide partial symptomatic relief of core symptoms of ASD or manage the symptoms of comorbid conditions. Non-pharmacological interventions, which show promising evidence in improving social interaction and verbal communication of ASD patients, include music therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and social behavioral therapy. Hormonal therapies with oxytocyin or vasopressin receptor antagonists have also shown some promise in improving core ASD symptoms. The use of vitamins, herbal remedies and nutritional supplements in conjunction with pharmacological and behavioral treatment appear to have some effect in symptomatic improvement in ASD, though additional studies are needed to confirm these benefits. Developing novel disease-modifying therapies may prove to be the ultimate intervention for sustained improvement of symptoms in ASD.
- Hans Asperger, National Socialism, and "race hygiene" in Nazi-era Vienna. [Journal Article]
- MAMol Autism 2018; 9:29
- CONCLUSIONS: The narrative of Asperger as a principled opponent of National Socialism and a courageous defender of his patients against Nazi 'euthanasia' and other race hygiene measures does not hold up in the face of the historical evidence. What emerges is a much more problematic role played by this pioneer of autism research. Future use of the eponym should reflect the troubling context of its origins in Nazi-era Vienna.
- Kynurenine Pathway in Autism Spectrum Disorders in Children. [Journal Article]
- NNeuropsychobiology 2018 Apr 25; :1-7
- CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that there is an increased neurotoxic potential and also a possible lower KYN aminotransferase activity in ASD.
- Improvement of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in School-Aged Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults With Autism via a Digital Smartglasses-Based Socioemotional Coaching Aid: Short-Term, Uncontrolled Pilot Study. [Journal Article]
- JMJMIR Ment Health 2018 Mar 24; 5(2):e25
- CONCLUSIONS: This study provides initial evidence for the possible potential of the Empowered Brain system to reduce ADHD-related symptoms, such as hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity, in school-aged children, adolescents, and young adults with ASD. This digital smartglasses intervention can potentially be targeted at a broader array of mental health conditions that exhibit transdiagnostic attentional and social communication deficits, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Further research is required to understand the clinical importance of these observed changes and to conduct longitudinal studies on this intervention with control groups and larger sample sizes.
- Education and employment status of adults with autism spectrum disorders in Germany - a cross-sectional-survey. [Journal Article]
- BPBMC Psychiatry 2018 Mar 27; 18(1):75
- CONCLUSIONS: Despite largely high formal qualifications, the clinically mostly late-diagnosed adults with ASD represented in our sample are disadvantaged regarding their participation in the German labour market, especially with respect to rates of unemployment, early retirement and overeducation. Employment support programs should be developed to improve employment outcomes.
- Empathizing-systemizing cognitive styles: Effects of sex and academic degree. [Journal Article]
- PlosPLoS One 2018; 13(3):e0194515
- This study tests if the drives to empathize (E) and systemize (S), measured by the Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R) and Empathy Quotient (EQ), show effects of sex and academic degree. The response...
This study tests if the drives to empathize (E) and systemize (S), measured by the Systemizing Quotient-Revised (SQ-R) and Empathy Quotient (EQ), show effects of sex and academic degree. The responses of 419 students from the Humanities and the Physical Sciences were analyzed in terms of the E-S theory predictions. Results confirm that there is an interaction between sex, degree and the drive to empathize relative to systemize. Female students in the Humanities on average had a stronger drive to empathize than to systemize in comparison to males in the Humanities. Male students in the Sciences on average had a stronger drive to systemize than to empathize in comparison to females in the Sciences. Finally, students in the sciences on average had a stronger drive to systemize more than to empathize, irrespective of their sex. The reverse is true for students in the Humanities. These results strongly replicate earlier findings.
- [Asperger Syndrome and/or Clinical High Risk of Psychosis? A Differential Diagnostic Challenge]. [Journal Article]
- PKPrax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr 2018; 67(3):274-293
- Asperger Syndrome and/or Clinical High Risk of Psychosis? A Differential Diagnostic Challenge This case-study deals with the often difficult differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome and a clinical...
Asperger Syndrome and/or Clinical High Risk of Psychosis? A Differential Diagnostic Challenge This case-study deals with the often difficult differential diagnosis of Asperger syndrome and a clinical high risk state of psychosis, in particular as indicated by attenuated psychotic symptoms, as well as with its therapeutic implications. The presented case is a 10-year old girl, who has not been diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder before being referred to a specialized center for early detection of psychosis due to possible hallucinatory experiences and delusional ideas. We demonstrate how to perform a context-sensitive differential diagnosis to distinguish between specific interests as well as related behaviors and unusual thought content as well as perceptive abnormalities, between paranoid ideas and biased interpretations of the behaviors of others typical for autism, and between disorganized symptoms and autistic unusual communication and social behavior. The resulting dual diagnoses in our case-study formed the basis for a complex differential indication, which considered both the increased stress vulnerability associated with an increased risk for the development of psychosis as well as the rigid thinking style associated with autism. Our case-report shows that such a precise differential indication can lead to stabilization over the long-term, even in patients with dual diagnoses.
- [Perisylvian magnetoencephalografic impairments in patients with autism spectrum disorders]. [Clinical Conference]
- RNRev Neurol 2018 Mar 01; 66(S01):S45-S49
- CONCLUSIONS: The amount of epileptiform activity in frontal perisylvian areas differed significantly between children with autistic disorder and those with Asperger syndrome and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified.
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- Are Psychotic Experiences Related to Poorer Reflective Reasoning? [Journal Article]
- FPFront Psychol 2018; 9:122
- Background: Cognitive biases play an important role in the formation and maintenance of delusions. These biases are indicators of a weak reflective mind, or reduced engaging in re...
Background: Cognitive biases play an important role in the formation and maintenance of delusions. These biases are indicators of a weak reflective mind, or reduced engaging in reflective and deliberate reasoning. In three experiments, we tested whether a bias to accept non-sense statements as profound, treat metaphorical statements as literal, and suppress intuitive responses is related to psychotic-like experiences.Methods:We tested deliberate reasoning and psychotic-like experiences in the general population and in patients with a former psychotic episode. Deliberate reasoning was assessed with the bullshit receptivity scale, the ontological confabulation scale and the cognitive reflection test (CRT). We also measured algorithmic performance with the Berlin numeracy test and the wordsum test. Psychotic-like experiences were measured with the Community Assessment of Psychic Experience (CAPE-42) scale.Results:Psychotic-like experiences were positively correlated with a larger receptivity toward bullshit, more ontological confabulations, and also a lower score on the CRT but not with algorithmic task performance. In the patient group higher psychotic-like experiences significantly correlated with higher bullshit receptivity.Conclusion:Reduced deliberate reasoning may contribute to the formation of delusions, and be a general thinking bias largely independent of a person's general intelligence. Acceptance of bullshit may be facilitated the more positive symptoms a patient has, contributing to the maintenance of the delusions.