- [What is the Core Symptom and Neural Mechanism of Asperger Syndrome? From Our Ten Years of Clinical Observation of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder]. [Journal Article]
- BNBrain Nerve 2018; 70(11):1225-1236
- In 2008, we launched a new outpatient clinic and day care service designed exclusively for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Since then, more than 6000 people visited our facility. We have ...
In 2008, we launched a new outpatient clinic and day care service designed exclusively for adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Since then, more than 6000 people visited our facility. We have also launched the Medical Institute for Developmental Disabilities Research (MIDDR) at Showa University, where neuroimaging studies with a 3.0 Tesla MRI scanner and rehabilitation studies intended to support people with ASD for job seeking were conducted for the past five years. As our subjects were found to have normal or high intelligence, we present here our research studies on Asperger syndrome patients with the focus on their resting-state functional connectivity network. We also review hypotheses of brain functioning in Asperger syndrome.
- Outpatient Psychotherapy for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Condition: Utilization, Treatment Satisfaction, and Preferred Modifications. [Journal Article]
- JAJ Autism Dev Disord 2018 Nov 10
- Many adults with autism spectrum condition (ASC) desire outpatient psychotherapy (PT). This study compared reasons for seeking PT, experiences with PT, and modifications preferred with respect to PT ...
Many adults with autism spectrum condition (ASC) desire outpatient psychotherapy (PT). This study compared reasons for seeking PT, experiences with PT, and modifications preferred with respect to PT of individuals with ASC to non-autistic individuals with depression (MDD). Furthermore, factors predictive for treatment satisfaction were identified in individuals with ASC. A total of 262 adults with ASC without intellectual impairment and 304 non-autistic controls with MDD were surveyed. In this pilot study both groups predominantly sought treatment for depressiveness. A low level of expertise with autism was the main reason for being declined by therapists and a contributing factor to the overall treatment dissatisfaction of patients with ASC. ASC patients desire adjustments such as written communication, and clearly structured sessions.
- Mapping the Human Brain in Frequency Band Analysis of Brain Cortex Electroencephalographic Activity for Selected Psychiatric Disorders. [Journal Article]
- FNFront Neuroinform 2018; 12:73
- There are still no good quantitative methods to be applied in psychiatric diagnosis. The interview is still the main and most important tool in the psychiatrist work. This paper presents the results ...
There are still no good quantitative methods to be applied in psychiatric diagnosis. The interview is still the main and most important tool in the psychiatrist work. This paper presents the results of electroencephalographic research with the subjects of a group of 30 patients with psychiatric disorders compared to the control group of healthy volunteers. All subjects were solving working memory task. The digit-span working memory task test was chosen as one of the most popular tasks given to subjects with cognitive dysfunctions, especially for the patients with panic disorders, depression (including the depressive phase of bipolar disorder), phobias, and schizophrenia. Having such cohort of patients some results for the subjects with insomnia and Asperger syndrome are also presented. The cortical activity of their brains was registered by the dense array EEG amplifier. Source localization using the photogrammetry station and the sLORETA algorithm was then performed in five EEG frequency bands. The most active Brodmann Areas are indicated. Methodology for mapping the brain and research protocol are presented. The first results indicate that the presented technique can be useful in finding psychiatric disorder neurophysiological biomarkers. The first attempts were made to associate hyperactivity of selected Brodmann Areas with particular disorders.
- Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in girls. Co-occurring psychopathology. Sex differences in clinical manifestation. [Journal Article]
- PPPsychiatr Pol 2018 Aug 24; 52(4):629-639
- CONCLUSIONS: ASD girls are at risk of receiving non-spectrum classification in ADOS or ADOS-2 while their developmental history and clinical manifestation confirm ASD. Clinical data suggests that ASD girls present more abnormalities in sensory profile. ASD girls are at greater risk for developing anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation, and for psychiatric hospitalization. ASD boys appear to be at greater risk for co-occurring ADHD, OCD and tics.
- [The diagnostics of autism spectrum disorder in children, adolescents and adults: Overview of the key questions and main results of the first part of the German AWMF-S3-clinical guideline]. [Journal Article]
- ZKZ Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother 2018 Oct 17; :1-12
- CONCLUSIONS: This first part of the ASD guideline offers users the opportunity to inform themselves about the background of ASD as well as evidence-based and broadly consented information on the correct diagnostic process of ASD from infancy to adulthood.
- Sex Hormones Regulate SHANK Expression. [Journal Article]
- FMFront Mol Neurosci 2018; 11:337
- Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a higher prevalence in male individuals compared to females, with a ratio of affected boys compared to girls of 4:1 for ASD and 11:1 for Asperger syndrome. Mutati...
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have a higher prevalence in male individuals compared to females, with a ratio of affected boys compared to girls of 4:1 for ASD and 11:1 for Asperger syndrome. Mutations in the SHANK genes (comprising SHANK1, SHANK2 and SHANK3) coding for postsynaptic scaffolding proteins have been tightly associated with ASD. As early brain development is strongly influenced by sex hormones, we investigated the effect of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 17β-estradiol on SHANK expression in a human neuroblastoma cell model. Both sex hormones had a significant impact on the expression of all three SHANK genes, which could be effectively blocked by androgen and estrogen receptor antagonists. In neuron-specific androgen receptor knock-out mice (ArNesCre), we found a nominal significant reduction of all Shank genes at postnatal day 7.5 in the cortex. In the developing cortex of wild-type (WT) CD1 mice, a sex-differential protein expression was identified for all Shanks at embryonic day 17.5 and postnatal day 7.5 with significantly higher protein levels in male compared to female mice. Together, we could show that SHANK expression is influenced by sex hormones leading to a sex-differential expression, thus providing novel insights into the sex bias in ASD.
- Childhood narcolepsy and autism spectrum disorders: four case reports. [Journal Article]
- SMSleep Med 2018; 51:167-170
- CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge co-occurrence of NT1 and AS has not been described in the literature as noted in this report.
- Gyrification changes are related to cognitive strengths in autism. [Journal Article]
- NCNeuroimage Clin 2018; 20:415-423
- CONCLUSIONS: Irrespective of their direction, regional gyrification differences in visual and language processing areas respectively reflect AS-SOD perceptual and AS-NoSOD language-oriented peaks. Unique regional maturation trajectories in the autistic brain may underline specific cognitive strengths, which are key variables for understanding heterogeneity in autism.
- [Social cognition in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder: Points of convergence and functional differences]. [Journal Article]
- EEncephale 2018 Aug 16
- CONCLUSIONS: The present revue of the studies which directly compare individuals with ASD and schizophrenia on different domains of social cognition indicates that both disorders exhibit differences and similarities with regard to behavioral performances. Results in neuroimaging indicate different neurocognitive mechanisms underlie apparently similar social-cognitive impairments. Further studies are needed to better explore and describe divergent neurocognitive mechanisms in ASD and schizophrenia in order to provide treatment and remediation methods that take into account the specificities of neurocognitive processes in the two disorders.
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- Risk markers for suicidality in autistic adults. [Journal Article]
- MAMol Autism 2018; 9:42
- CONCLUSIONS: Results confirm previously reported high rates of suicidality in ASC, and demonstrate that ASC diagnosis, and self-reported autistic traits in the general population are independent risk markers for suicidality. This suggests there are unique factors associated with autism and autistic traits that increase risk of suicidality. Camouflaging and unmet support needs appear to be risk markers for suicidality unique to ASC. Non-suicidal self-injury, employment, and mental health problems appear to be risk markers shared with the general population that are significantly more prevalent in the autistic community. Implications for understanding and prevention of suicide in ASC are discussed.