- Light therapies to improve sleep in intrinsic circadian rhythm sleep disorders and neuro-psychiatric illness: A systematic review and meta-analysis. [Review]
- SMSleep Med Rev 2019 Apr 30; 46:108-123
- Circadian dysregulation causes sleep disturbance and impacts quality of life and functioning. Some interventions target circadian entrainment through modifying light exposure, but existing reviews of…
Circadian dysregulation causes sleep disturbance and impacts quality of life and functioning. Some interventions target circadian entrainment through modifying light exposure, but existing reviews of light interventions for sleep improvement include few studies in psychiatric populations. We examined effect of light interventions on sleep quality, duration and timing, and effect moderators. We included controlled studies in intrinsic circadian rhythm disorders (such as advanced or delayed sleep) and in neuropsychiatric disorders with assumed high prevalence of circadian dysregulation (such as affective and psychotic disorders). Articles were identified through database searching: 40 studies reporting 49 relevant intervention comparisons met inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed improvements in sleep continuity (ES = -0.23, p = 0.000), self-reported sleep disturbance (ES = -0.32, p = 0.014), and advancement of delayed sleep timing (ES = -0.34, p = 0.010). Although the small number of studies limited meta-regression, evening light avoidance was associated with greater increase in total sleep time. Effects of light on sleep and circadian outcomes have received limited attention in studies in psychiatric disorders, but results were promising in these groups. These findings invite further refinement and testing of light interventions to improve sleep in psychiatric disorders, with improved assessment and specification of problems, and the development and implementation of light schedule interventions for delayed sleep.
- Bereaved mothers' and fathers' prolonged grief and psychological health 1-5 years after loss - a nationwide study. [Journal Article]
- PPsychooncology 2019 May 20
- CONCLUSIONS: Cancer-bereaved mothers and fathers are vulnerable to prolonged grief and psychological symptoms up to five years after the death of their child. Findings highlight that bereaved parents may need long-term support and the results deserve further attention in research and clinical care.
- The Association of Insomnia and Sleep Apnea with Deployment and Combat Exposure in the Entire Population of US Army Soldiers from 1997-2011: A Retrospective Cohort Investigation. [Journal Article]
- SSleep 2019 May 18
- Since 2001, the United States (US) has been engaged in the longest and most expensive overseas conflict in its history. Sleep disorders, especially insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), are com…
Since 2001, the United States (US) has been engaged in the longest and most expensive overseas conflict in its history. Sleep disorders, especially insomnia and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), are common in service members, and appear related to deployment and combat exposure, but this has not been systematically examined. Therefore, the incidence of clinically-diagnosed insomnia and OSA from 1997 to 2011 in the entire population of US Army soldiers was determined and associations of these disorders with deployment and combat exposure examined. This observational retrospective cohort study linked medical, demographic, deployment, and combat casualty data from all active duty US Army soldiers serving from 1997-2011 (n = 1,357,150). The mediating effects of multiple known comorbid conditions were considered. From 2003 to 2011, there were extraordinary increases in incidence of insomnia (652%) and OSA (600%). Factors increasing insomnia risk were deployment (risk ratio [RR] [deployed/not deployed] = 2.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.04-2.08) and combat exposure (RR [exposed/not exposed] = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.19-1.22). Risk of OSA was increased by deployment (RR [deployed/not deployed] = 2.14; 95% CI, 2.11-2.17), but not combat exposure (RR [exposed/not exposed] = 1.00; 95% CI, 0.98-1.02). These relationships remained after accounting for other factors in multivariable analyses. A number of comorbid medical conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury mediated a portion of the association between the sleep disorders and deployment. It is essential to determine underlying mechanisms responsible for these very large increases in insomnia and OSA and introduce effective preventive measures.
- Breast Cancer Quality of Life and Health-state Utility at a Brazilian Reference Public Cancer Center. [Journal Article]
- ERExpert Rev Pharmacoecon Outcomes Res 2019 May 19
- CONCLUSIONS: In a context of impairments in mental functioning, sexual enjoyment, symptoms burden, and poor future self-health perspective, breast cancer produced a mean HSU of 0.712. After a period of routine care, there was a small improvement in quality of life, however lower utility estimates were particularly observed in patients with advanced disease and undergoing multiple chemotherapy regimens.
- Psychological Interventions for Late-life Insomnia: Current and Emerging Science. [Journal Article]
- CSCurr Sleep Med Rep 2018; 4(4):268-277
- Late-life insomnia is a serious medical condition associated with many untoward consequences. The high prevalence of late-life insomnia, along with the concomitant risks inherent in the use of hypnot…
Late-life insomnia is a serious medical condition associated with many untoward consequences. The high prevalence of late-life insomnia, along with the concomitant risks inherent in the use of hypnotic medications in older adults necessitates non-pharmacological (i.e., psychological) treatment options. We aim to summarize and evaluate the state-of-the-science of psychological treatment options for late-life insomnia.
- Aspects of work organization and reduced sleep quality of airline pilots. [Journal Article]
- SSSleep Sci 2019 Jan-Feb; 12(1):43-48
- CONCLUSIONS: Pilots' daily work schedules, consisting of frequent delays, long working hours and perceived high work demands preventing adequate recovery were associated with poor sleep quality.
- Sleep and women intimate partner victimization: prevalence, effects and good practices in health care settings. [Review]
- SSSleep Sci 2019 Jan-Feb; 12(1):35-42
- Intimate Partner Violence is a global health issue with higher prevalence worldwide, mostly in women, higher social and economic costs and devastating physical and mental health consequences for the …
Intimate Partner Violence is a global health issue with higher prevalence worldwide, mostly in women, higher social and economic costs and devastating physical and mental health consequences for the victims. Sleep disturbances has been associated with other mental health issues, being an important symptom when diagnosing post-traumatic stress disorder, depression or anxiety. It can also constitute an important sign to help health professionals to identify potential victims of intimate partner violence. This review paper main objectives are to address the connection between intimate partner violence and sleep disruption, the role and barriers of health professionals in screening this type of violence when sleep problems are present, and to describe good practices in order to identify these victims and to provide support. It has been found that intimate partner victims commonly experience significant sleep disturbances that include truncated sleep, nightmares and less restful sleep. Health professionals are first-line professionals with a pivot role to screen and identify women victims. However, a set of personal (e.g., lack of knowledge and inadequate perceptions about violence, cultural issues) and organizational barriers (e.g., time constraints, lack of training, absence of institutional protocols) may limit the accurate reading of those symptoms. Accordingly, health professionals must be alert not only to physical health conditions associated with violence (acute physical injuries, chronic physical injuries, obstetric and genital injuries), but also psychological problems, like depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, alcohol or drug misuse, sleep disturbances, insomnia and nightmares. In the presence of alert symptoms related to violence, health professionals become able to screen, identify and provide ongoing care for women, promoting a trusting relationship and assuming an attentive non-judgmental listening.
- Insomnia as a Partial Mediator of the Relationship Between Personality and Future Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression Among Nurses. [Journal Article]
- FPFront Psychol 2019; 10:901
- CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that insomnia may act as a mediator between neuroticism and symptoms of anxiety and depression, but the indirect relationship between neuroticism and anxiety and depression through insomnia is considerably weaker than the direct association. Hence, the mediating effect of insomnia should be interpreted with caution. The sample mainly consisted of female nurses, and the generalizability of the findings to male dominated occupations is limited. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of an integrated approach and strengthen the understanding of how personality and psychopathology are connected.
- Psychophysiological insomnia and respiratory tract infections: results of an infection-diary-based cohort study. [Journal Article]
- SSleep 2019 May 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the relevance of adequate sleep for an immune system ready to fight pathogens and prevent airway infections.
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- Secure and Scalable mHealth Data Management Using Blockchain Combined With Client Hashchain: System Design and Validation. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Med Internet Res 2019 May 16; 21(5):e13385
- CONCLUSIONS: Our proposed mHealth system, blockchain combined with client hashchain, ensures compatibility of security and scalability in the data management of mHealth medical practice.