- Sleep disorder prevalence in at-risk adolescents and potential effects of nightmare triad syndrome. [Journal Article]
- IJInt J Adolesc Med Health 2018 Feb 17
- Objective At-risk high school students, those considered to have a higher probability for academic failure or dropping out, were assessed for various sleep disorders. Effects were compared between st...
Objective At-risk high school students, those considered to have a higher probability for academic failure or dropping out, were assessed for various sleep disorders. Effects were compared between students with and without the nightmare triad syndrome (NTS+), the sleep disorders' cluster of frequent nightmares, insomnia disorder and suspected sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). Methods Data were gathered at a charter school for at-risk youth using: computer based surveys, physical airway exams, and mental health interviews by school social worker. Ninety-two students were enrolled, and 70 completed all study components. Results Students were teenaged [17.10 (1.50) years], male (52.2%) slightly overweight [BMI 25.50 (6.41)] Hispanics (87.0%); two-thirds (65 of 92) subjectively reported a sleep problem. Frequent nightmares (39.1%), insomnia (ISI ≥ 12, 41.3%), and SDB risk (79.3%) were common. Several presumptive sleep disorders (insomnia, SDB risk, parasomnia, or nightmares) were associated with worse sleep quality and lower quality of life. Nineteen students met criteria for NTS. Compared to NTS-, NTS+ showed significantly lower quality of life (p < 0.003, g = 0.84). Regression analyses revealed higher levels of depression and anxiety symptoms in NTS+ students. NTS was associated with reduced quality of life independent of anxiety symptoms. Conclusion Prevalence of presumptive sleep disorders was high with a tendency for clusters of sleep disorders in the same individual. Students with NTS+ showed worse outcomes and reduced quality of life, mediated partially by depression and anxiety. To examine relationships between sleep disorders and mental health in at-risk adolescents, research investigations must include both subjective and objective measurements of sleep.
- Investigating the Effectiveness, Acceptability and Impact on Healthcare Usage of Providing a Cognitive-Behavioural Based Psychological Therapy Service for Patients with Primary Antibody Deficiency. [Journal Article]
- JCJ Clin Immunol 2018 Feb 17
- CONCLUSIONS: Psychological therapy based on the cognitive-behavioral model of treatment appears to be a valuable treatment for patients with primary antibody deficiency and comorbid mental health difficulties.
- Adult insecure attachment plays a role in hyperarousal and emotion dysregulation in Insomnia Disorder. [Journal Article]
- PRPsychiatry Res 2018 Jan 09; 262:162-167
- Studies show that unhelpful cognitive processes play a role in insomnia, whereas interpersonal factors have been less studied in insomnia. Attachment theory can be used as a cognitive-interpersonal f...
Studies show that unhelpful cognitive processes play a role in insomnia, whereas interpersonal factors have been less studied in insomnia. Attachment theory can be used as a cognitive-interpersonal framework for understanding insomnia. Because attachment insecurity (vs security) is related to psychiatric disorders the objective was to study the attachment style in insomnia. To this aim sixty-four subjects with Insomnia Disorder (DSM-5) and 38 good sleepers were evaluate in a cross-sectional study with: Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ), Arousal Predisposition Scale (APS), Pre-Sleep Arousal Scale (PSAS) and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Differences in means between groups were assessed using t-test or Mann-Whitney U/Wilcoxon test. Linear/multiple regression analyses were performed. Subjects with insomnia (mean age 47.1 + 13 yrs) presented an insecure attachment style and higher scores in all the scales (ASQ, APS, PSAS, DERS p < 0.0001) than good sleepers (mean age 48.2 + 14 yrs). After taking into account anxiety/depressive symptoms, insecure attachment was related to hyperarousal trait (p = 0.02), pre-sleep hyperarousal (p = 0.04) and emotion dysregulation (p = 0.002). In conclusion subjects with insomnia showed an insecure attachment which was related to hyperarousal trait, pre-sleep hyperarousal and emotion dysregulation. It may intervene in the trajectory of insomnia starting from predisposition to perpetuation. Clinical implications are discussed.
- Are sleep disturbances causally linked to the presence and severity of psychotic-like, dissociative and hypomanic experiences in non-clinical populations? A Systematic Review. [Review]
- NBNeurosci Biobehav Rev 2018 Feb 13
- The present review aimed to 1) identify what sleep disturbances co-occur alongside psychotic-like, dissociative and hypomanic experiences; 2) assess the strength of potential associations between the...
The present review aimed to 1) identify what sleep disturbances co-occur alongside psychotic-like, dissociative and hypomanic experiences; 2) assess the strength of potential associations between the severity of sleep disturbances and of the experiences studied; and 3) appraise evidence for a causal link. MedLine and PsycInfo were searched and 44 studies were deemed eligible. Results showed that insomnia was associated with all individual psychotic-like, dissociative and hypomanic experiences reviewed (effect size range: small-to-large). Parasomnias were associated with all psychotic-like experiences; however, there was evidence of variation in magnitude between individual experiences. An eveningness chronotype was associated with dissociative and hypomanic experiences, and circadian dysrhythmia was found alongside hypomania but not the other experiences reviewed. Finally, experimental sleep manipulation studies revealed a potential causal link between sleep loss and psychotic-like and dissociative experiences with a large effect size. However, this was not the case for experiences such as paranoia. Future research, using experimental manipulations of sleep to address putative mechanisms, will enable questions of causality to be answered with more confidence.
- Stroop Task-Related Brain Activity in Patients With Insomnia: Changes After Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Insomnia. [Journal Article]
- BSBehav Sleep Med 2018 Feb 16; :1-13
- CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that cognitive impairment in patients with CID was not detectable by the Stroop task or Stroop task-related brain activation on fMRI. Moreover, there was no altered brain activity during the Stroop task after CBT-I. However, the ISI score reflected changes in the neural correlates of cognitive processes in patients with CID after CBT-I.
- Quality of Life and African American Women Who are Family Caregivers: A Literature Review with Implications for Psychiatric Mental Health Advanced Practice Registered Nurses. [Journal Article]
- IMIssues Ment Health Nurs 2018 Feb 16; :1-15
- CONCLUSIONS: PMH-APRNs are uniquely trained to address many factors that affect the QOL of these caregivers and may provide holistic care aimed at promoting satisfactory QOL for these caregivers.
- Validity of a single PTSD checklist item to screen for insomnia in survivors of critical illness. [Journal Article]
- HLHeart Lung 2018 Feb 12
- CONCLUSIONS: A single PCL-C sleep item score ≥ 3 is a reasonable screen to identify insomnia symptoms in ICU survivors.
- Sleep problems and suicidal behaviors in college students. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Psychiatr Res 2018 Jan 12; 99:122-128
- Using a large sample of college students, objectives were to examine (1) the overlap between poor sleep and suicide risk status, (2) whether poor sleep was associated with suicide behaviors above and...
Using a large sample of college students, objectives were to examine (1) the overlap between poor sleep and suicide risk status, (2) whether poor sleep was associated with suicide behaviors above and beyond depression, (3) whether sleep problems and depression interacted to predict increased suicidal behaviors or risk, and (4) which specific components of sleep were uniquely associated with suicidal behaviors. Participants were 1700 college students (ages 18-29 years; 65% female) from two universities who completed measures assessing sleep, depressive symptoms, and suicidal behaviors (Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised [SBQ-R], a composite measure including ideation, past attempt, disclosure to others, and future likelihood of suicide that includes a cutoff for determining participants with suicide risk). Approximately one-quarter (24%) of participants were classified with suicide risk. Four-fifths (82.7%) of participants classified with suicide risk also met cutoff criteria for sleep problems; conversely, almost one-third (31.3%) of the participants classified with sleep problems were also classified with suicide risk. Total sleep problems remained significantly associated with suicidal behaviors above and beyond depressive symptoms, though sleep and depression did not interact to predict suicidal behaviors or risk. When considered together and controlling for sex, the odds of being classified with suicide risk were 6.54 times greater for participants with elevated depressive symptoms and 2.70 times greater for participants with sleep problems. Analyses examining specific sleep domains found shorter sleep duration, having bad dreams, feeling too cold while sleeping, and sleep medication use to each be independently associated with suicidal behaviors. Findings add to a growing body of literature linking sleep and suicide in college students.
- Increased hippocampal-prefrontal functional connectivity in insomnia. [Journal Article]
- NLNeurobiol Learn Mem 2018 Feb 12
- Insomnia Disorder (ID) is the second-most common mental disorder and has a far-reaching impact on daytime functioning. A meta-analysis indicates that, of all cognitive domains, declarative memory inv...
Insomnia Disorder (ID) is the second-most common mental disorder and has a far-reaching impact on daytime functioning. A meta-analysis indicates that, of all cognitive domains, declarative memory involving the hippocampus is most affected in insomnia. Hippocampal functioning has consistently been shown to be sensitive to experimental sleep deprivation. Insomnia however differs from sleep deprivation in many aspects, and findings on hippocampal structure and function have been equivocal. The present study used both structural and resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in a larger sample than previously reported to evaluate hippocampal volume and functional connectivity in ID. Included were 65 ID patients (mean age = 48.3 y ± 14.0, 17 males) and 65 good sleepers (mean age = 44.1 y ± 15.2, 23 males). Insomnia severity was assessed with the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), subjective sleep with the Consensus Sleep Diary (CSD) and objective sleep by two nights of polysomnography (PSG). Seed-based analysis showed a significantly stronger connectivity of the bilateral hippocampus with the left middle frontal gyrus in ID than in controls (p = .035, cluster based correction for multiple comparisons). Further analyses across all participants moreover showed that individual differences in the strength of this connectivity were associated with insomnia severity (ISI, r = .371, p = 9.3e-5) and with subjective sleep quality (CSD sleep efficiency, r = -.307, p = .009) (all p FDR-corrected). Hippocampal volume did not differ between ID and controls. The findings indicate more severe insomnia and worse sleep quality in people with a stronger functional connectivity between the bilateral hippocampus and the left middle frontal gyrus, part of a circuit that characteristically activates with maladaptive rumination and deactivates with sleep.
New Search Next
- Association of pemphigus and systemic corticosteroid use with comorbid health disorders: A case-control study. [Journal Article]
- DODermatol Online J 2017 Dec 15; 23(12)
- CONCLUSIONS: Safer and more effective systemic treatment options are needed for pemphigus to minimize iatrogenic complications of disease.