- Synthesis, in vitro urease inhibitory activity, and molecular docking studies of thiourea and urea derivatives. [Journal Article]
- BCBioorg Chem 2018 Jun 05; 80:129-144
- The current study deals with the synthesis of urea and thiourea derivatives 1-37 which were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques including FAB-MS, 1H-, and 13C NMR. The synthetic compoun...
The current study deals with the synthesis of urea and thiourea derivatives 1-37 which were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques including FAB-MS, 1H-, and 13C NMR. The synthetic compounds were subjected to urease inhibitory activity and compounds exhibited good to moderate urease inhibitory activity having IC50 values in range of 10.11-69.80 µM. Compound 1 (IC50 = 10.11 ± 0.11 µM) was found to be most active and even better as compared to the standard acetohydroxamic acid (IC50 = 27.0 ± 0.5 µM). A limited structure-activity relationship (SAR) was established and the compounds were also subjected to docking studies to confirm the binding interactions of ligands (compounds) with the active site of enzyme.
- Synthesis and molecular docking study of some novel 2,3-disubstituted quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives as potent inhibitors of urease. [Journal Article]
- BCBioorg Chem 2018 Jun 04; 80:121-128
- A new series of 2,3-disubstituted quinazolin-4(3H)-one compounds including oxadiazole and furan rings was synthesized. Their inhibitory activities on urease were assessed in vitro. All newly synthesi...
A new series of 2,3-disubstituted quinazolin-4(3H)-one compounds including oxadiazole and furan rings was synthesized. Their inhibitory activities on urease were assessed in vitro. All newly synthesized compounds exhibited potent urease inhibitory activity in the range of IC50 = 1.55 ± 0.07-2.65 ± 0.08 µg/mL, when compared with the standard urease inhibitors such as thiourea (IC50 = 15.08 ± 0.71 µg/mL) and acetohydroxamic acid (IC50 = 21.05 ± 0.96 µg/mL). 2,3-Disubstituted quinazolin-4(3H)-one derivatives containing furan ring (3a-e) were found to be the most active inhibitors when compared with the compounds 2a-e bearing oxadiazole ring. Compound 3a, bearing 4-chloro group on phenyl ring, was found as the most effective inhibitor of urease with the IC50 value of 1.55 ± 0.11 µg/mL. The molecular docking studies of the newly synthesized compounds were performed to identify the probable binding modes in the active site of the Jack bean urease (JBU) enzymes.
- Resolution and evaluation of 3-chlorophenyl-3-hydroxypropionylhydroxamic acid as antivirulence agent with excellent eradication efficacy in Helicobacter pylori infected mice. [Journal Article]
- EJEur J Pharm Sci 2018 May 31; 121:293-300
- The continuing emergence of drug-resistant Helicobacter pylori (HP) drives the ongoing need for the development of new and effective anti-HP drugs. Urease inhibitor has now gained strong interest as ...
The continuing emergence of drug-resistant Helicobacter pylori (HP) drives the ongoing need for the development of new and effective anti-HP drugs. Urease inhibitor has now gained strong interest as an alternative approach for HP infections. 3-Chlorophenyl-3-hydroxypropionylhydroxamic acid (CPH), a novel urease inhibitor identified in our group, shows impressive potency, which was optically separated for a further exploration. Here, we report in vitro/in vivo pharmacological evaluation of (±)-CPHs and the enantiomers. The raceme and the individual enantiomers significantly suppress gastritis at 32 mg/kg b.i.d dose with lower toxicity to mammalian cells (with CC50s ≥ 3.16 mM) and mice (LD50s ≥ 2338 mg/kg) than the clinically used agent acetohydroxamic acid. Furthermore, a significant increase of eradication of HP is observed for the combination of (±)-CPHs or the enantiomers with an antimicrobial. These studies revealed that CPH is a promising candidate for an alternative treatment of HP-dependent conditions by targeting virulence factor urease, and CPH may be used as a raceme.
- In Silico study of the active site of Helicobacter pylori urease and its inhibition by hydroxamic acids. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mol Graph Model 2018 May 01; 83:64-73
- Hydroxamic acids have emerged as the most promising candidates from among the different classes of inhibitors of urease. In order to understand the mechanism of their action, we have studied in detai...
Hydroxamic acids have emerged as the most promising candidates from among the different classes of inhibitors of urease. In order to understand the mechanism of their action, we have studied in detail using quantum mechanics the active site of Helicobacter pylori urease complexed with acetohydroxamic acid. A diverse library of ligands having the hydroxamate moiety has been prepared and docked into the active site of urease using the QM/MM methodology. It is found that hydroxamic acids with hydrophobic groups attached to them are more potent inhibitors of urease because they can easily penetrate the hydrophobic environment surrounding the active site. The -CONHO- moiety of the hydroxamic acid is also found to be absolutely necessary for chelation and inhibition of urease. In order to determine the roles of residues His 221 and Ala 365, which are not part of the active site, but are nevertheless involved in hydrogen bonding with the ligand, we have performed Molecular Dynamics simulations, both on the wild urease and also on its mutated counterpart, with the two residues substituted, respectively, by alanine and glycine.
- Reduction of Plutonium(VI) to (V) by Hydroxamate Compounds at Environmentally Relevant pH. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Technol 2018 Jun 05; 52(11):6448-6456
- Natural organic matter is known to influence the mobility of plutonium (Pu) in the environment via complexation and reduction mechanisms. Hydroxamate siderophores have been specifically implicated du...
Natural organic matter is known to influence the mobility of plutonium (Pu) in the environment via complexation and reduction mechanisms. Hydroxamate siderophores have been specifically implicated due to their strong association with Pu. Hydroxamate siderophores can also break down into di and monohydroxamates and may influence the Pu oxidation state, and thereby its mobility. In this study we explored the reactions of Pu(VI) and Pu(V) with a monohydroxamate compound (acetohydroxamic acid, AHA) and a trihydroxamate siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB) at an environmentally relevant pH (5.5-8.2). Pu(VI) was instantaneously reduced to Pu(V) upon reaction with AHA. The presence of hydroxylamine was not observed at these pHs; however, AHA was consumed during the reaction. This suggests that the reduction of Pu(VI) to Pu(V) by AHA is facilitated by a direct one electron transfer. Importantly, further reduction to Pu(IV) or Pu(III) was not observed, even with excess AHA. We believe that further reduction of Pu(V) did not occur because Pu(V) does not form a strong complex with hydroxamate compounds at a circum-neutral pH. Experiments performed using desferrioxamine B (DFOB) yielded similar results. Broadly, this suggests that Pu(V) reduction to Pu(IV) in the presence of natural organic matter is not facilitated by hydroxamate functional groups and that other natural organic matter moieties likely play a more prominent role.
- Nitrogen Dioxide Reaction with Nitroxide Radical Derived from Hydroxamic Acids: The Intermediacy of Acyl Nitroso and Nitroxyl (HNO). [Journal Article]
- JPJ Phys Chem A 2018 Apr 19; 122(15):3747-3753
- Hydroxamic acids (RC(O)NHOH) form a class of compounds that display interesting chemical and biological properties The chemistry of RC(O)NHOH) is associated with one- and two-electron oxidations form...
Hydroxamic acids (RC(O)NHOH) form a class of compounds that display interesting chemical and biological properties The chemistry of RC(O)NHOH) is associated with one- and two-electron oxidations forming the respective nitroxide radical (RC(O)NHO•) and acyl nitroso (RC(O)N═O), respectively, which are relatively unstable species. In the present study, the kinetics and mechanism of the •NO2 reaction with nitroxide radicals derived from acetohydroxamic acid, suberohydroxamic acid, benzohydroxamic acid, and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid have been studied in alkaline solutions. Ionizing radiation was used to generate about equal yields of these radicals, demonstrating that the oxidation of the transient nitroxide radical by •NO2 produces HNO and nitrite at about equal yields. The rate constant of •NO2 reaction with the nitroxide radical derived from acetohydroxamic acid has been determined to be (2.5 ± 0.5) × 109 M-1 s-1. This reaction forms a transient intermediate absorbing at 314 nm, which decays via a first-order reaction whose rate increases upon increasing the pH or the hydroxamic acid concentration. Transient intermediates absorbing around 314 nm are also formed during the oxidation of hydroxamic acids by H2O2 catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase. It is shown that HNO is formed during the decomposition of these intermediates, and therefore, they are assigned to acyl nitroso compounds. This study provides for the first time a direct spectrophotometric detection of acyl nitroso compounds in aqueous solutions allowing the study of their chemistry and reaction kinetics.
- Metallochaperone UreG serves as a new target for design of urease inhibitor: A novel strategy for development of antimicrobials. [Journal Article]
- PBPLoS Biol 2018; 16(1):e2003887
- Urease as a potential target of antimicrobial drugs has received considerable attention given its versatile roles in microbial infection. Development of effective urease inhibitors, however, is a sig...
Urease as a potential target of antimicrobial drugs has received considerable attention given its versatile roles in microbial infection. Development of effective urease inhibitors, however, is a significant challenge due to the deeply buried active site and highly specific substrate of a bacterial urease. Conventionally, urease inhibitors are designed by either targeting the active site or mimicking substrate of urease, which is not efficient. Up to now, only one effective inhibitor-acetohydroxamic acid (AHA)-is clinically available, but it has adverse side effects. Herein, we demonstrate that a clinically used drug, colloidal bismuth subcitrate, utilizes an unusual way to inhibit urease activity, i.e., disruption of urease maturation process via functional perturbation of a metallochaperone, UreG. Similar phenomena were also observed in various pathogenic bacteria, suggesting that UreG may serve as a general target for design of new types of urease inhibitors. Using Helicobacter pylori UreG as a showcase, by virtual screening combined with experimental validation, we show that two compounds targeting UreG also efficiently inhibited urease activity with inhibitory concentration (IC)50 values of micromolar level, resulting in attenuated virulence of the pathogen. We further demonstrate the efficacy of the compounds in a mammalian cell infection model. This study opens up a new opportunity for the design of more effective urease inhibitors and clearly indicates that metallochaperones involved in the maturation of important microbial metalloenzymes serve as new targets for devising a new type of antimicrobial drugs.
- A New Kinetic, Automated Assay to Determine the Ferroxidase Activity of Ceruloplasmin. [Journal Article]
- ASAnal Sci 2017; 33(12):1339-1344
- A new kinetic and automated assay was developed to determine ceruloplasmin ferroxidase activity. Ferrous ions are turned into ferric ions via catalytic activity of the ferroxidase enzyme. Acetohydrox...
A new kinetic and automated assay was developed to determine ceruloplasmin ferroxidase activity. Ferrous ions are turned into ferric ions via catalytic activity of the ferroxidase enzyme. Acetohydroxamic acid, a chromogen, forms a colored complex with ferric ions. This reaction was measured kinetically. Significant and strong correlations were obtained between the new acetohydroxamic method and the p-phenylenediamine oxidase (r = 0.988, p <0.001), o-dianisidine oxidase (r = 0.981, p <0.001), norfloxacine oxidase (r = 0.989, p <0.001) and nephelometric methods (r = 0.861, p <0.001). This reliable, applicable, user-friendly, and low-priced method can be performed fully automatically or with manual spectrophotometry, and can be used to measure the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin.
- Photochemistry of Acetohydroxamic Acid in Solid Argon. FTIR and Theoretical Studies. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Phys Chem A 2018 Jan 11; 122(1):60-71
- The products formed during exposure of the CH3CONHOH/Ar (AHA/Ar) matrices to the full output of the Xe lamp and to 225 nm OPO radiation are studied. The irradiation promotes the isomerization, 1Z → 1...
The products formed during exposure of the CH3CONHOH/Ar (AHA/Ar) matrices to the full output of the Xe lamp and to 225 nm OPO radiation are studied. The irradiation promotes the isomerization, 1Z → 1E, and AHA photodissociation reactions. Four pairs of coproducts are experimentally found to appear in the photolysis, they form the complexes: CH3OH···HNCO (1), H2O···CH3NCO (2), H2O···CH3CNO (3) and CO···CH3NHOH (4). The structures of the complexes were optimized at the MP2 computational level with the 6-311++G(2d,2p) and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets. Three local minima were predicted for the complex (1), two for the complexes (2) and (3) and four local minima were found for the complex (4). The comparison of the theoretical spectra with the experimental ones allowed us to determine the structures of the complexes formed in the matrix. The mechanisms of the reaction channels leading to formation of the four coproducts are proposed. It is concluded that the first step in formation of the (1), (2) and (3) complexes is the scission of the N-O bond whereas the creation of the complex (4) is due to the cleavage of the C-N bond.
New Search Next
- Formation of struvite urinary stones and approaches towards the inhibition-A review. [Review]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2017; 96:361-370
- CONCLUSIONS: The present review recapitulates various factors affecting the growth of struvite urinary stones and the inhibitory role of certain chemicals and herbal extracts. Most of the tested plants are edible hence can be easily consumed without any adverse effects whereas the side effects of chemicals are unknown due to lack of toxicity studies. Thus, the use of herbal extracts might serve as an alternate and safe therapy for prevention of struvite stones.