- In Silico study of the active site of Helicobacter pylori urease and its inhibition by hydroxamic acids. [Journal Article]
- JMJ Mol Graph Model 2018 May 01; 83:64-73
- Hydroxamic acids have emerged as the most promising candidates from among the different classes of inhibitors of urease. In order to understand the mechanism of their action, we have studied in detai...
Hydroxamic acids have emerged as the most promising candidates from among the different classes of inhibitors of urease. In order to understand the mechanism of their action, we have studied in detail using quantum mechanics the active site of Helicobacter pylori urease complexed with acetohydroxamic acid. A diverse library of ligands having the hydroxamate moiety has been prepared and docked into the active site of urease using the QM/MM methodology. It is found that hydroxamic acids with hydrophobic groups attached to them are more potent inhibitors of urease because they can easily penetrate the hydrophobic environment surrounding the active site. The -CONHO- moiety of the hydroxamic acid is also found to be absolutely necessary for chelation and inhibition of urease. In order to determine the roles of residues His 221 and Ala 365, which are not part of the active site, but are nevertheless involved in hydrogen bonding with the ligand, we have performed Molecular Dynamics simulations, both on the wild urease and also on its mutated counterpart, with the two residues substituted, respectively, by alanine and glycine.
- Reduction of Plutonium(VI) to (V) by Hydroxamate Compounds at Environmentally Relevant pH. [Journal Article]
- ESEnviron Sci Technol 2018 May 16
- Natural organic matter is known to influence the mobility of plutonium (Pu) in the environment via complexation and reduction mechanisms. Hydroxamate siderophores have been specifically implicated du...
Natural organic matter is known to influence the mobility of plutonium (Pu) in the environment via complexation and reduction mechanisms. Hydroxamate siderophores have been specifically implicated due to their strong association with Pu. Hydroxamate siderophores can also break down into di and monohydroxamates and may influence the Pu oxidation state, and thereby its mobility. In this study we explored the reactions of Pu(VI) and Pu(V) with a monohydroxamate compound (acetohydroxamic acid, AHA) and a trihydroxamate siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB) at an environmentally relevant pH (5.5-8.2). Pu(VI) was instantaneously reduced to Pu(V) upon reaction with AHA. The presence of hydroxylamine was not observed at these pHs; however, AHA was consumed during the reaction. This suggests that the reduction of Pu(VI) to Pu(V) by AHA is facilitated by a direct one electron transfer. Importantly, further reduction to Pu(IV) or Pu(III) was not observed, even with excess AHA. We believe that further reduction of Pu(V) did not occur because Pu(V) does not form a strong complex with hydroxamate compounds at a circum-neutral pH. Experiments performed using desferrioxamine B (DFOB) yielded similar results. Broadly, this suggests that Pu(V) reduction to Pu(IV) in the presence of natural organic matter is not facilitated by hydroxamate functional groups and that other natural organic matter moieties likely play a more prominent role.
- Nitrogen Dioxide Reaction with Nitroxide Radical Derived from Hydroxamic Acids: The Intermediacy of Acyl Nitroso and Nitroxyl (HNO). [Journal Article]
- JPJ Phys Chem A 2018 Apr 19; 122(15):3747-3753
- Hydroxamic acids (RC(O)NHOH) form a class of compounds that display interesting chemical and biological properties The chemistry of RC(O)NHOH) is associated with one- and two-electron oxidations form...
Hydroxamic acids (RC(O)NHOH) form a class of compounds that display interesting chemical and biological properties The chemistry of RC(O)NHOH) is associated with one- and two-electron oxidations forming the respective nitroxide radical (RC(O)NHO•) and acyl nitroso (RC(O)N═O), respectively, which are relatively unstable species. In the present study, the kinetics and mechanism of the •NO2 reaction with nitroxide radicals derived from acetohydroxamic acid, suberohydroxamic acid, benzohydroxamic acid, and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid have been studied in alkaline solutions. Ionizing radiation was used to generate about equal yields of these radicals, demonstrating that the oxidation of the transient nitroxide radical by •NO2 produces HNO and nitrite at about equal yields. The rate constant of •NO2 reaction with the nitroxide radical derived from acetohydroxamic acid has been determined to be (2.5 ± 0.5) × 109 M-1 s-1. This reaction forms a transient intermediate absorbing at 314 nm, which decays via a first-order reaction whose rate increases upon increasing the pH or the hydroxamic acid concentration. Transient intermediates absorbing around 314 nm are also formed during the oxidation of hydroxamic acids by H2O2 catalyzed by horseradish peroxidase. It is shown that HNO is formed during the decomposition of these intermediates, and therefore, they are assigned to acyl nitroso compounds. This study provides for the first time a direct spectrophotometric detection of acyl nitroso compounds in aqueous solutions allowing the study of their chemistry and reaction kinetics.
- Metallochaperone UreG serves as a new target for design of urease inhibitor: A novel strategy for development of antimicrobials. [Journal Article]
- PBPLoS Biol 2018; 16(1):e2003887
- Urease as a potential target of antimicrobial drugs has received considerable attention given its versatile roles in microbial infection. Development of effective urease inhibitors, however, is a sig...
Urease as a potential target of antimicrobial drugs has received considerable attention given its versatile roles in microbial infection. Development of effective urease inhibitors, however, is a significant challenge due to the deeply buried active site and highly specific substrate of a bacterial urease. Conventionally, urease inhibitors are designed by either targeting the active site or mimicking substrate of urease, which is not efficient. Up to now, only one effective inhibitor-acetohydroxamic acid (AHA)-is clinically available, but it has adverse side effects. Herein, we demonstrate that a clinically used drug, colloidal bismuth subcitrate, utilizes an unusual way to inhibit urease activity, i.e., disruption of urease maturation process via functional perturbation of a metallochaperone, UreG. Similar phenomena were also observed in various pathogenic bacteria, suggesting that UreG may serve as a general target for design of new types of urease inhibitors. Using Helicobacter pylori UreG as a showcase, by virtual screening combined with experimental validation, we show that two compounds targeting UreG also efficiently inhibited urease activity with inhibitory concentration (IC)50 values of micromolar level, resulting in attenuated virulence of the pathogen. We further demonstrate the efficacy of the compounds in a mammalian cell infection model. This study opens up a new opportunity for the design of more effective urease inhibitors and clearly indicates that metallochaperones involved in the maturation of important microbial metalloenzymes serve as new targets for devising a new type of antimicrobial drugs.
- A New Kinetic, Automated Assay to Determine the Ferroxidase Activity of Ceruloplasmin. [Journal Article]
- ASAnal Sci 2017; 33(12):1339-1344
- A new kinetic and automated assay was developed to determine ceruloplasmin ferroxidase activity. Ferrous ions are turned into ferric ions via catalytic activity of the ferroxidase enzyme. Acetohydrox...
A new kinetic and automated assay was developed to determine ceruloplasmin ferroxidase activity. Ferrous ions are turned into ferric ions via catalytic activity of the ferroxidase enzyme. Acetohydroxamic acid, a chromogen, forms a colored complex with ferric ions. This reaction was measured kinetically. Significant and strong correlations were obtained between the new acetohydroxamic method and the p-phenylenediamine oxidase (r = 0.988, p <0.001), o-dianisidine oxidase (r = 0.981, p <0.001), norfloxacine oxidase (r = 0.989, p <0.001) and nephelometric methods (r = 0.861, p <0.001). This reliable, applicable, user-friendly, and low-priced method can be performed fully automatically or with manual spectrophotometry, and can be used to measure the ferroxidase activity of ceruloplasmin.
- Photochemistry of Acetohydroxamic Acid in Solid Argon. FTIR and Theoretical Studies. [Journal Article]
- JPJ Phys Chem A 2018 Jan 11; 122(1):60-71
- The products formed during exposure of the CH3CONHOH/Ar (AHA/Ar) matrices to the full output of the Xe lamp and to 225 nm OPO radiation are studied. The irradiation promotes the isomerization, 1Z → 1...
The products formed during exposure of the CH3CONHOH/Ar (AHA/Ar) matrices to the full output of the Xe lamp and to 225 nm OPO radiation are studied. The irradiation promotes the isomerization, 1Z → 1E, and AHA photodissociation reactions. Four pairs of coproducts are experimentally found to appear in the photolysis, they form the complexes: CH3OH···HNCO (1), H2O···CH3NCO (2), H2O···CH3CNO (3) and CO···CH3NHOH (4). The structures of the complexes were optimized at the MP2 computational level with the 6-311++G(2d,2p) and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets. Three local minima were predicted for the complex (1), two for the complexes (2) and (3) and four local minima were found for the complex (4). The comparison of the theoretical spectra with the experimental ones allowed us to determine the structures of the complexes formed in the matrix. The mechanisms of the reaction channels leading to formation of the four coproducts are proposed. It is concluded that the first step in formation of the (1), (2) and (3) complexes is the scission of the N-O bond whereas the creation of the complex (4) is due to the cleavage of the C-N bond.
- Formation of struvite urinary stones and approaches towards the inhibition-A review. [Review]
- BPBiomed Pharmacother 2017; 96:361-370
- CONCLUSIONS: The present review recapitulates various factors affecting the growth of struvite urinary stones and the inhibitory role of certain chemicals and herbal extracts. Most of the tested plants are edible hence can be easily consumed without any adverse effects whereas the side effects of chemicals are unknown due to lack of toxicity studies. Thus, the use of herbal extracts might serve as an alternate and safe therapy for prevention of struvite stones.
- Biological Evaluation and Molecular Docking of Protocatechuic Acid from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. as a Potent Urease Inhibitor by an ESI-MS Based Method. [Journal Article]
- MMolecules 2017 Oct 11; 22(10)
- Studies on enzyme inhibition remain a crucial area in drug discovery since these studies have led to the discoveries of new lead compounds useful in the treatment of several diseases. In this study, ...
Studies on enzyme inhibition remain a crucial area in drug discovery since these studies have led to the discoveries of new lead compounds useful in the treatment of several diseases. In this study, protocatechuic acid (PCA), an active compound from Hibiscus sabdariffa L. has been evaluated for its inhibitory properties against jack bean urease (JBU) as well as its possible toxic effect on human gastric epithelial cells (GES-1). Anti-urease activity was evaluated by an Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) based method, while cytotoxicity was assayed by the MTT method. PCA exerted notable anti-JBU activity compared with that of acetohydroxamic acid (AHA), with IC50 values of 1.7 and 3.2 µM, respectively. PCA did not show any significant cytotoxic effect on (GES-1) cells at concentrations ranging from 1.12 to 3.12 µM. Molecular docking study revealed high spontaneous binding ability of PCA to the active site of urease. Additionally, the anti-urease activity was found to be related to the presence of hydroxyl moieties of PCA. This study presents PCA as a natural urease inhibitor, which could be used safely in the treatment of diseases caused by urease-producing bacteria.
- Lipophilic conformationally constrained spiro carbocyclic 2,6-diketopiperazine-1-acetohydroxamic acid analogues as trypanocidal and leishmanicidal agents: An extended SAR study. [Journal Article]
- CBChem Biol Drug Des 2018; 91(2):408-421
- We have previously described a number of lipophilic conformationally constrained spiro carbocyclic 2,6-diketopiperazine (2,6-DKP)-1-acetohydroxamic acids as potent antitrypanosomal agents. In this re...
We have previously described a number of lipophilic conformationally constrained spiro carbocyclic 2,6-diketopiperazine (2,6-DKP)-1-acetohydroxamic acids as potent antitrypanosomal agents. In this report, we extend the SAR analysis in this class of compounds with respect to in vitro growth inhibition of Trypanosoma and Leishmania parasites. Introduction of bulky hydrophobic substituents at the vicinal position of the basic nitrogen atom in the spiro carbocyclic 2,6-DKP ring system can provide analogues which are potently active against bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei and exhibit significant activities toward Trypanosoma cruzi epimastogotes and Leishmania infantum promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. In particular, compounds possessing a benzyl or 4-chlorobenzyl substituent were found to be the most active growth inhibitors, with activities in the low nanomolar and low micromolar ranges for T. brucei and L. infantum, respectively. The benzyl-substituted (S)-enantiomer was the most potent derivative against T. brucei (IC50 = 6.8 nm), T. cruzi (IC50 = 0.21 μm), and L. infantum promastigotes (IC50 = 2.67 μm) and intracellular amastigotes (IC50 = 2.60 μm). Moreover, the (R)-chiral benzyl-substituted derivative and its racemic counterpart displayed significant activities against L. donovani. Importantly, the active compounds show high selectivity in comparison with two mammalian cell lines.
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- Effectiveness of Treatment Modalities on Kidney Stone Recurrence. [Journal Article]
- CJClin J Am Soc Nephrol 2017 Oct 06; 12(10):1699-1708
- Nephrolithiasis is highly prevalent across all demographic groups in the Western world and beyond, and its incidence rates are rising. In addition to the morbidity of the acute event, stone disease o...
Nephrolithiasis is highly prevalent across all demographic groups in the Western world and beyond, and its incidence rates are rising. In addition to the morbidity of the acute event, stone disease often becomes a lifelong problem that requires preventative therapy to diminish ongoing morbidity. Across the majority of stone types, increased fluid intake and targeted dietary modifications are mainstays of therapy. Specific dietary interventions associated with reduced calcium stone risk include adequate dietary calcium intake and restriction of sodium, protein, and oxalate intake, among others. Pharmaceutical therapy may be required if lifestyle changes are insufficient to minimize risk of stone recurrence, and must be targeted to the specific metabolic abnormalities portending risk for a given patient. Therapeutic options for idiopathic calcium stone disease include thiazides, citrate salts, and uric acid-lowering agents. Alkali salts are also the treatment of choice for uric acid stone disease. Management of struvite stone disease is largely surgical, but acetohydroxamic acid is a proven second line therapy. Cystinuria requires lifestyle modifications and may call for thiol-binding agents. Significant heterogeneity of the clinical population with stone disease has previously limited opportunities for large randomized controlled trials. However, as clinical phenotypes and genotypes are increasingly clarified, there are mounting opportunities for targeted randomized controlled trials in stone prevention. In the meantime, the currently available evidence for both lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions is reviewed herein.