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1,530 results
  • Organophosphorus compounds and oximes: a critical review. [Review]
    Arch Toxicol. 2020 Jun 06 [Online ahead of print]Worek F, Thiermann H, Wille T
  • Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents still pose a threat to the population. Treatment of OP poisoning is an ongoing challenge and burden for medical services. Standard drug treatment consists of atropine and an oxime as reactivator of OP-inhibited acetylcholinesterase and is virtually unchanged since more than six decades. Established oximes, i.e. pralidoxime, obidoxime, TMB-4, HI-6 …
  • Integrating brucine with carbon nanotubes toward electrochemical sensing of hydroxylamine. [Journal Article]
    Mikrochim Acta. 2020 May 22; 187(6):343.Xi W, Zhai J, … Zhang Z
  • Based on the intrinsic electrochemical features of brucine integrated with carbon nanotubes (brucine/SWNTs), dimeric quinoid brucine was electrochemically generated by electroactivation of a brucine/SWNTs-modified GC electrode and used as a novel electrocatalyst for efficient electro-oxidation of hydroxylamine (HA). The electrocatalytic activity was investigated with cyclic voltammetry in the ran…
  • Outcome of patients with chlorpyrifos intoxication. [Journal Article]
    Hum Exp Toxicol. 2020 Apr 27 [Online ahead of print]Liu HF, Ku CH, … Yen TH
  • CONCLUSIONS: The mortality rate of patients with chlorpyrifos intoxication was 15.0%. Furthermore, acute cholinergic crisis, intermediate syndrome, and delayed neuropathy developed in 100.0%, 12.5%, and 0% of patients, respectively.
  • Central neuroprotection demonstrated by novel oxime countermeasures to nerve agent surrogates. [Review]
    Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2020 Apr 21 [Online ahead of print]Chambers JE, Meek EC
  • Oximes remain a long-standing element of the therapy for nerve agents, organophosphates (OPs) that poison by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE), resulting in hypercholinergic activity both centrally and peripherally. Oximes, such as the pyridinium oxime pralidoxime (2-PAM) in the United States, can reactivate the inhibited AChE and restore cholinergic function. However, there are s…
  • Pharmacokinetics of Three Oximes in a Guinea Pig Model and Efficacy of Combined Oxime Therapy. [Journal Article]
    Toxicol Lett. 2020 May 15; 324:86-94.Bohnert S, van den Berg RM, … Joosen MJA
  • Organophosphorus nerve agents (NA) inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) which results in the over-stimulation of both the central and peripheral nervous systems, creating a toxic syndrome that can be lethal if left untreated (Cannard, 2006). It is standard practice to treat Sarin (GB) intoxication with an oxime, an antimuscarinic such as atropine and an anticonvulsant. Three common oximes are avai…
  • Clinical effects from household insecticide: pyrethroid or organophosphate toxicity? [Case Reports]
    BMJ Case Rep. 2019 Nov 21; 12(11)Basrai Z, Koh C, … Warren J
  • A 54-year-old man with a history of schizophrenia presented to the emergency room for weakness with associated lacrimosis, drooling, nausea, emesis, diarrhoea, diplopia and burning sensation on his skin that began 6 hours after spraying five cans of Raid on his carpet. He was noted to have miotic pupils and hyperactive bowel sounds. Given the clinical presentation, the patient was diagnosed with …
  • Pharmacological and toxicological in vitro and in vivo effect of higher doses of oxime reactivators. [Journal Article]
    Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2019 11 15; 383:114776.Hepnarova V, Muckova L, … Soukup O
  • The major function of compounds with an oxime moiety attached to a quarternary nitrogen pyridinium ring is to reactivate acetylcholinesterase inhibited by organophosphorus agent (OP). However, other oxime mechanisms (e.g. modulation of cholinergic or glutamatergic receptor) may be involved in the recovery. The main disadvantage of positively charged reactivators is their low ability to penetrate …
  • Pyridostigmine Suicidal Attempt in a Myasthenia Gravis Patient. [Case Reports]
    Am J Case Rep. 2019 Sep 26; 20:1418-1421.Malabaey MAT, Al-Saud AA, … Malik A
  • CONCLUSIONS: The authors demonstrated that pyridostigmine poisoning is self-limiting and well tolerated by young adults; however, unwanted effects of pyridostigmine on the heart has still to be considered which may become profound to the point of generating heart failure, syncope, or stress particularly in elderly patients. As the literature on human toxicity with pyridostigmine is scarce, not much data is available on its toxicity. However, prompt and specific management of pyridostigmine toxicity promises safety.
  • Social and Cultural Factors Leading to Suicide Attempt via Organophosphate Poisoning in Nepal. [Case Reports]
    Case Rep Psychiatry. 2019; 2019:7681309.Licata C, Liu L, … Chaulagain S
  • Organophosphates are commonly used in rural, agricultural communities worldwide. Poisoning in Nepal is commonly a result of suicide attempt via ingestion with a mortality rate of 41 times higher than in the United States even after appropriate treatment. The patient discussed in this case is a 46-year-old Nepalese female with a complicated psychosocial history that presented with a suicide attemp…
  • Myocardial Infarction following Organophosphorus Compound Poisoning. [Case Reports]
    J Assoc Physicians India. 2018 Dec; 66(12):88-89.Ayyadurai P, Subbiah G, Selvaraj V
  • We report a 22 year old male who was admitted to our hospital with alleged history of consumption of monocrotophos poison and had presented with chest pain. His electrocardiogram (ECG) had showed ST segment elevation myocardial infarction and troponins were elevated. He also had low cholinesterase levels and was treated with pralidoxime and atropine and his condition improved. Cardiac catheteriza…
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