- Obstructive or central sleep apnea
- Obesity-hypoventilation syndrome (Pickwickian syndrome)
- Central alveolar hypoventilation (brainstem disorder)
- Primary alveolar hypoventilation (Ondine’s curse)
- Neuromuscular disorder, eg, myasthenia gravis, poliomyelitis, spinal cord trauma
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
- Chronic hypnotic use
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